THE INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL-ECONOMIC
JOURNAL

Contents

PROCESSES AND MACHINES OF AGROENGINEERING SYSTEMS

 

Malin N. I.

Modeling of the kinetics of two-stage recirculating grain drying

 
7

Apkhudov T. M., Apazhev A. K., Shekikhachev Y. A.

Justification of the key design and process parameters of the grinder of branches of fruit-trees

 
15

Hagmetova A. L., Fiapshev A. G.

Agrotechnical efficiency of the unit for care of the soil in intensive gardening

 
20

Osmonov O. М., Babicheva E. L., Kanatnikov Yu. A.

To justification of parameters of the accumulator heater of a solar biogas plant

 
27

Shukhanov S. N.

Some activities to improve the condition of soil in cultivation of agricultural cultures

 
33

Korzhenevskiy B. I.

Factors of migration of heavy metals in water objects and in the nearby territories

 
38

Fedorov S. K., Vlasov M. V., Gamidov A. G.

Increasing the wear resistance of parts from steel 20hn3a by electromechanical surface hardening

 
45

Didmanidze O. N., Guzalov A. S., Bolshakov N. A.

The modern level of development of engines with gas-engine and electric power plants on the transport and traction means

 
52

Aleinikov Yu. G., Mityagina Yа. G.

Reliable determination of the time of the touch time of a supporting surface of a stepping machine

 
60

Vinogradov O. V., Egorov R. N., Zhurilin A. N.

Security assurance of self-propelled equipment drivers at agricultural enterprises

 
69

Pulyaev N. N., Pilshchikov V. L.

System approach to the problem of resource-saving use of machine-tractor units in crop

 
75

 

 

ENERGY

 

Ivakina E. G., Tihnenko V. G.

Recommendations for the prevention of accidents cases during operating of electrical installations

 
82

Usanov A. V.

Basic modelling of circuit diagrams for low voltage balancing devices

 
88

 

 

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PROCESSES AND MACHINES

OF AGROENGINEERING SYSTEMS

 

 

 

DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-7-14

УДК 631.563.2:633.1-047.58

 

NIKOLAY I. MALIN, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 

MODELING OF THE KINETICS OF TWO-STAGE RECIRCULATING GRAIN DRYING

Abstract. The description of the concept of "drying mode" in relation to grain dryers continuous action: mine ramjet and mine recirculation. It is noted that both single-stage modes (with a uniform heat supply throughout the process) and two-stage modes can be used in mine direct-flow dryers, either with an increase in the heat flow during the process (ascending modes) or with a decrease in the heat flow (descending modes). For recirculation grain dryers it is recommended to use both ascending and descending two-stage modes. It  is shown that the single-stage modes recommended by the current drying Structure often do not take into account the difference in the dimensions and operating modes of the first and second drying zones. To eliminate this drawback, a formula for calculating the average temperature zones of the drying agent tch is proposed. It is noted that for modeling the process of single-stage drying it is enough to have a mathematical description of the kinetics of the processes of dehydration and heating of grain. A feature of the two-stage drying is that in the second stage (otherwise the second drying zone), the grain comes with a partially dehydrated surface and increased, in comparison with the initial value, temperature. For this reason, there are problems with the use of kinetic dependencies used to describe singlestage drying. A procedure for modeling the kinetics of two-stage grain drying is proposed and described. Based on the use of the dependencies obtained by the author, examples (with graphical support) of the practical implementation of the modeling procedure are given. Calculations of the kinetics of dehydration and the construction of thermograms of grain in the first and second of the drying zones of the mine recirculation dryer is carried out using different temperatures of drying agent t1с < tch < t2c (°C) in conditions of one-step drying and t(1с+2c) under the conditions of two-stage drying. A comparison of the final values of moisture and temperature of the grain mixture (at the exit of second from the drying zone) obtained under the conditions of single-stage (at tch) and two-stage (at t(1с+2с)) drying is carried out. Sufficient reliability of the proposed modeling procedure is shown.

Key words: modeling, straight-through and recirculation dryers, single stage dryer, double stage dryer, ascending and descending modes of drying, curve drying grain, thermogram.

 

REFERENCES

1. Instrukciya po sushke prodovol'stvennogo, kormovogo zerna, maslosemyan i ekspluatacii zernosushilok. M. : CNIITEI Minzaga SSSR, 1982. 61 p.

2. Malin N. I. Termoustojchivost' i neravnomernost' nagreva kak faktory vozdejstviya na rezhim sushki zerna // Mezhdunarodnyj tekhniko-ekonomicheskij zhurnal. 2018. № 4. pp. 26-36.

3. Malin N. I. Energosberezhenie v teplotekhnologiyah APK: uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie. M. : FGBNU "Rosinformagrotekh", 2018. 124 p.

4. Malin N. I. Shahtnaya zernosushilka s odnim i dvumya konturami recirkulyacii kak ob"ekt upravleniya processom sushki // V sb.: Aktual'nye problemy energetiki APK: Materialy VII mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii / Pod obshch. red. V. A. Trushkina. Saratov , 2016. pp. 124–130.

5. Malin N. I. Energosberegayushchaya sushka zerna: uchebnoe posobie. M. : KolosS, 2004. 240 p.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-15-19

УДК 631.363.2:636.085.622

 

TIMUR M. APKHUDOV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

ASLAN K. APAZHEV, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

YURIY A. SHEKIKHACHEV, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Kabardino-Balkarian State Agricultural University named after V. M. Kokov, Russian Federation, Nalchik

 

JUSTIFICATION OF THE KEY DESIGN AND PROCESS PARAMETERS OF THE GRINDER OF BRANCHES OF FRUIT-TREES

Abstract. The developed car is intended for crushing of branches of fruit-trees. Crushing of branches in this car happens several stages, on each of which difficult processes of machining of wood of branches (frictional movement, cutting, deformation, destruction) at the same time proceed. Studying of these processes is a necessary stage before design. At the same time it is necessary to know sizes of operating forces and parameters of the processed material at each stage of technological process. During creation of any technical tool it is necessary to aspire to that its power consumption was whenever possible minimum. The analysis of designs of cars for crushing and their work when processing branches showed that the most power-intensive operation are process of cutting of branches. It follows from this that the main criterion for evaluation of power consumption of crushing is the power consumption of cutting of branches. In our case cutting of wood of branches of fruit-trees happens in the two-roll rotor crushing working body – the first step of the device for crushing. The parameters having the greatest impact on effort of cutting of branches of fruit-trees are set: geometrical sizes of rotors of the grinder; quantity of knives on a knife disk; angles of sharpening of knives; speed of rotation of rotors; feed rate of branches; a gap between a knife and shaft of the rotor located opposite. Their rational values are recommended.

Key words: fruit-trees, branches, crushing, grinder, rotor, knife, parameters, cutting effort.

 

REFERENCES

1. Shekihachev Yu. A., Shomahov L. A., Aphudov T. M. Innovacionnaya tekhnologiya i tekhnicheskie sredstva po uhodu za kronami plodovyh derev'ev / Katalog innovacionnyh razrabotok Kabardino-Balkarskogo GAU. Nal'chik : Kabardino-Balkarskij GAU, 2016. pp. 23-24.

2. Shekihachev Yu. A., Aphudov T. M., Shekihacheva L. Z. Obrezka kak sposob regulirovaniya rosta i plodonosheniya plodovyh derev'ev // Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj (zaochnoj) nauchnoprakticheskoj konferencii "Innovacii v sovremennoj nauke" (28 noyabrya 2017 goda). Praga : Osviceni, 2017. pp. 37-40.

3. Shekihachev Yu. A., Aphudov T. M., Shekihacheva L. Z., Dzholabov Yu. Sh. Sravnitel'naya harakteristika sposobov rezaniya drevesiny // Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj (zaochnoj) nauchnoprakticheskoj konferencii "Novye voprosy v sovremennoj nauke" (23 dekabrya 2017 goda). Sofiya : SORoS, 2017. pp. 20-23.

4. Aphudov T. M. Blochno-modul'nyj agregat dlya obrezki plodovyh derev'ev // Sel'skij mekhanizator. 2016. № 2. pp. 10-11.

5. Aphudov T. M., Shomahov L. A., Shekihachev Yu. A. Razrabotka agregata dlya detal'noj obrezki plodovyh derev'ev // Sovremennye nauchnye issledovaniya i razrabotki. 2017. № 4(12). pp. 358-360.

6. Zammoev A. U. Parametry i rezhimy raboty izmel'chitel'nogo ustrojstva podborshchika izmel'chitelya srezannyh vetvej plodovyh derev'ev : dis. kand. tekhn. nauk : 05.20.01 / Zammoev Aslan Uzeirovich. Nal'chik, 2006. 189 p.

7. Lopatin A. M. Issledovanie raboty frezernoj mashiny MPG-1,7 na osvoenii zakustarennyh ploshchadej v Prionskoj pojme: dis. kand. tekhn. nauk. Ryazan', 1970. 233 p.

8. Lancev V. Yu. Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii utilizacii othodov obrezki v slaboroslyh sadah s obosnovaniem parametrov izmel'chitelya : dis. kand. tekhn. nauk: 05.20.01 / Lancev Vladimir Yur'evich. Michurinsk, 2004. 164 p.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-20-26

УДК (631.5:634).003.13 

 

ALINA L. HAGMETOVA, Postgraduate

AMUR G. FIAPSHEV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department

Kabardino-Balkarian State Agricultural University named after V. M. Kokov, Russian Federation, Nalchik

 

AGROTECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE UNIT FOR CARE OF THE SOIL IN INTENSIVE GARDENING

Abstract. The constructive and technological scheme of the unit for processing of row-spacings and the space near fruit plantings including three sections of rotational working bodies and the milling working body executed in the form of a vertical shaft in which lower part the ripper of active action in the form of a flat P-shaped knife is rigidly attached is proved. In the course of work the crushed mulching material mixed with the soil is exposed to hymification in an expedited manner as it is carried out in anaerobic conditions with simultaneous renewal of supply of the mulching material in spaces near fruit plantings. Besides the loosened sites of space near trees absorb better and accumulate the dropping-out atmospheric precipitation, and the mulching material oppresses germination of weeds and protects a surface of the loosened space near trees from moisture evaporation. The offered unit allows to carry out, on the one hand, mulching, with another – the accelerated hymification of space near fruit plantings. At the same time improve the water and food mode of fruit plantings, favorable conditions for development of the microbiological processes in the soil increasing its fertility are created. Rational values of the key parameters of the unit having a decisive influence on process of its work are established. Agrotechnical assessment of use of the offered design showed that the mulch from vegetation covers the surface of the soil in space near trees more densely and interferes with moisture evaporation, being one of important and useful agrotechnical inclusion in technologies of care of the soil in fruit plantings. Assessment of cost efficiency showed that as a result of use of the unit the cost of works and power consumption of process of care of fruit plantings decrease.

Key words: gardening, row-spacings, space near fruit-trees, the soil, processing, the combined units, vegetation, efficiency.

 

REFERENCES

1. Bakuev Zh. S. Agroekologicheskie osnovy sozdaniya intensivnyh plodovyh nasazhdenij v usloviyah vertikal'noj zonal'nosti central'noj chasti Severnogo Kavkaza: dis. doktora sel'skohoz. nauk: 06.01.08 / Bakuev Zhamal Hazhiosmanovich. Nal'chik, 2015. 398 p.

2. Apazhev A. K., Shekihachev Yu. A., Hazhmetov L. M. Innovacionnye tekhnologicheskie i tekhnicheskie resheniya po povysheniyu plodorodiya pochv v usloviyah sklonovyh erodirovannyh chernozemnyh pochv Yuga Rossii. Nal'chik : Kabardino-Balkarskij GAU, 2017. 344 p.

3. Shekihachev Yu. A., Hazhmetova A. L., Shekihachev A. A. Obosnovanie konstruktivno-tekhnologicheskoj skhemy tekhnicheskogo sredstva dlya sozdaniya gumusovogo sloya v pristvol'nyh polosah plodovyh nasazhdenij // V sb.: Inzhenernoe obespechenie innovacionnogo razvitiya agropromyshlennogo kompleksa Rossii: Sbornik nauchnyh trudov VII Vserossijskoj nauchnoprakticheskoj konferencii, posvyashchennoj 75-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya H. G. Urusmambetova. Nal'chik : Kabardino-Balkarskij GAU, 2018. pp. 249-251.

4. Hazhmetova A. L., Shekihachev Yu. A. Ustanovka dlya sozdaniya gumusovogo sloya v pristvol'nyh polosah plodovyh nasazhdenij v sadah na terrasah // V sb.: Mirovye nauchno-tekhnologicheskie tendencii social'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya APK i sel'skih territorij: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii, posvyashchennoj 75-letiyu okonchaniya Stalingradskoj bitvy. Volgograd : Volgogradskij GAU, 2018. pp. 278-282.

5. Pat. 178374 Rossijskaya Federaciya, MPKA 01 D 34/84 (2006.01), A 01 B 39/16 (2006.01). Ustanovkadlya sozdaniya gumusovogo sloya v pristvol'nyh polosah derev'ev, v sadah, na terrasah i galechnikovyh zemlyah / Apazhev A. K., Berbekov V. N., Shekihachev Yu. A., Hazhmetova A. L., Temirzhanov I. O., Kuchmezov H. I.; zayavitel' i patentoobladatel' FGBOU VO Kabardino-Balkarskij GAU. № 2017138883 ; zayavl. 08.11.2017 ; opubl. 02.04.2018 , Byul. № 10.

6. Shekihachev Yu. A., Polishchuk E. A., Hazhmetova A. L. Ustanovka dlya obrabotki pristvol'nyh polos // Materialy XIII Mezhdunarodnaya NPK "Aktual'nye problemy nauchno-tekhnicheskogo progressa v APK" (5-7 aprelya, 2017 goda, g. Stavropol'). Stavropol', 2017. pp. 125–128.

7. Hazhmetova A. L., Shekihachev Yu. A. Innovacionnaya biotekhnologiya i tekhnicheskoe sredstvo dlya sozdaniya gumusovogo sloya v pristvol'nyh polosah plodovyh nasazhdenij // Materialy VII Vserossijskoj konferencii studentov, aspirantov i molodyh uchenyh "Perspektivnye innovacionnye proekty molodyh uchenyh". Nal'chik , 2017. pp. 155-159.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-27-32

УДК 621.355 

 

OROZMAMAT М. OSMONOV, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

ELENA L. BABICHEVA, Senior Lecturer

YURIY A. KANATNIKOV, Senior Lecturer

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 

TO JUSTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS OF THE ACCUMULATOR HEATER OF A SOLAR BIOGAS PLANT

Abstract. The article notes that one of the alternative sources of heat and electricity in rural areas is considered biogas produced by anaerobic processing of organic waste of agriculture (both vegetable and animal origin) in order to reduce the negative impact on the environment. The article presents the technological scheme of the helio-biogas plant, in which solar radiation energy is used to ensure the temperature regime of the process of anaerobic processing of organic agricultural waste. The heat carrier (water) passing through solar collectors and heated by solar radiation is used to heat the contents of the methane tank of a helium-biogas plant. To ensure the operation of the helium-biogas plant during periods of absence of solar radiation, a heat accumulator is designed. In addition, for the same purpose is also a heating backup (electric water heater). It is noted that when designing the heat storage battery of the solar heat supply system of the biogas plant, the main task after choosing a material for heat storage is to determine the capacity of the heat storage battery. The optimal capacity of the heat accumulator, in turn, determines the effective operation of the biogas plant depending on the expected mode of solar energy supply, the nature of the expected loads, the required reliability of the fermentation process. By means of mathematical modeling the obtained analytical expressions are interrelated definition of the parameters of the main heating system of the digester (solar collector and accumulator of heat) solar biogas plant, depending on the daily amounts of incoming solar radiation.

Key words: biogas, anaerobic digestion of organic waste, helio-biogas plant, solar heating system biogas plant, heat accumulator.

 

REFERENCES

1. Bioenergetika: mirovoj opyt i prognoz razvitiya: Nauchno-analiticheskij obzor. M. : FGNU "Rosinformagrotekh", 2007. 204 p.

2. Panckhava E. S., Pozharnov V. A. Perspektivy ispol'zovaniya biomassy v energetike Rossii i eksporte topliva // Malaya energetika. 2005. № 1-2 (2-3). pp. 74-82.

3. Osmonov O. M. Nauchno-tekhnicheskie osnovy sozdaniya avtonomnyh bioenergeticheskih ustanovok dlya krest'yanskih hozyajstv v gornyh rajonah Kirgizii: dis. doktora tekhn. nauk: 05.20.01 / Osmonov Orozmamat Mamasalievich. M. , 2012. 251 p.

4. Pat. 2284967 Rossijskaya Federaciya, MPK C 02 F 11/04 (2006.01), A 01 C 3/00 (2006.01) Bioenergeticheskaya ustanovka / Osmonov O. M., Kovalev D. A. ; zayavitel' i patentoobladatel' GNU VIESKH. № 2005117017/12 ; zayavl. 03.06.2005 ; opubl. 10.10.2006, Byul. № 28.

5. Osmonov O. M. Avtonomnaya geliobioenergeticheskaya ustanovka // Mekhanizaciya i elektrifikaciya sel'skogo hozyajstva. 2006. № 11. pp. 16-17.

6. Rudobashta S. P. Teplotekhnika. 2-e izd., dop. M. : Pero, 2015. 672 p.

7. Osmonov O. M. Osnovy inzhenernogo rascheta geliobioenergeticheskih ustanovok: Nauchnoe izdanie. M. : Energiya, 2011. 175 p.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-33-37

УДК 631.526:631.4.004.12

 

STANISLAV N. SHUKHANOV, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

Irkutsk State Agricultural University named after A. A. Ezhevsky, Russian Federation, Irkutsk

 

SOME ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE THE CONDITION OF SOIL IN CULTIVATION OF AGRICULTURAL CULTURES

Abstract. One of the ways to improve the soil condition in the fields where it is necessary is subsoil reclamation (deep loosening, deep plowing). Deep loosening allows you to eliminate excessive soil moisture and increase its moisture content. The ability of soil to retain moisture depends on pore size and increases with increasing capillary porosity. On excessively moistened soils, the root system, which develops mainly in the upper layers, suffers from a lack of oxygen in rainy years. Deep loosening and fertilization lead to intensive development of the root system. Experiments have shown that most of the roots of grain crops reach a depth of 0.7 m 8 weeks after sowing. n order to improve the effect of amelioration and the growth of crops, nutrients are introduced into the subsurface layer - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, especially in dry years. Phosphate fertilizers help stabilize soil structure. To improve its chemical properties, burnt lime is mainly used. In the calculations used the average amount of lime. For plots occupying at least 10 hectares with a difference in the need for lime, 3 tons per hectare, its application rates are differentiated. There are two ways to stabilize the structure: chemically (subsurface ameliorants and fertilizers) and biological (enrichment of the soil by the root system of plants, followed by saturating it with microorganisms). The effectiveness of deep application of ameliorants and fertilizers depends on their type, quantity and distribution in the soil. f the mineral fertilizers applied to the deep layers of the soil, nitrogen is most effective, it forms many roots and roots in plants in the shortest possible time, promotes their growth, which leads to stabilization of the soil structure. Humus, in turn, serves as food for soil microorganisms and stabilizes the soil structure. The most effective chemical improver for acid is lime.

Key words: soil condition, deep loosening, root system, excess moisture.

 

REFERENCES

1. Altuhov I. V., Ochirov V. D., Fedotov V. A. Eksperimental'naya IK-ustanovka dlya sushki plodov i ovoshchej // Vestnik IrGSKHA. 2017. № 81-2. pp. 90-96.

2. Butenko A. F., Asaturyan A. V. K obosnovaniyu effektivnosti ispol'zovaniya kombinirovannogo lentochnogo metatelya zerna // Mezhdunarodnyj tekhniko-ekonomicheskij zhurnal. 2018. № 1. pp. 80-86.

3. Kuz'min A. V., Ostroumov S. S., Shuhanov S. N. Analiz matematicheskoj modeli processa otdeleniya rastitel'nyh primesej rotornym separatorom kartofelekopatelya // Vestnik VSGUTU. 2018. № 3. pp. 25-31.

4. Polyakov G. N., Shuhanov S. N. Modernizaciya separatora izmel'chennogo voroha zernovyh kolosovyh kul'tur // Permskij agrarnyj vestnik. 2019. № 1(25). pp. 4-9.

5. Stepanov N. V., Shuhanov S. N. Novaya zashchitnaya smazka dlya hraneniya sel'skohozyajstvennoj tekhniki // Izvestiya Nizhnevolzhskogo agrouniversitetskogo kompleksa. 2019. № 1(53). pp. 352-358.

6. Shuhanov S. N., Kuz'min A. V., Kosareva A. V. Sovershenstvovanie izmel'chitelya korneplodov // Izvestiya Orenburgskogo GAU. 2018. № 72 (№4). pp. 185-186.

7. Shuhanov S. N. Glubokoe meliorativnoe ryhlenie pochv // Vestnik Buryatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2003. Ser. 9. Vyp. 2. pp. 160-161.

8. Shuhanov S. N. Stabilizaciya meliorativnogo effekta razryhlennoj pochvy // Vestnik Buryatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2003. Ser. 9. Vyp. 2. pp. 164-165.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-38-44

УДК 626.823.4

 

BORIS I. KORZHENEVSKIY, Ph. D. of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Senior Research Officer

All-Russian Research Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation, Russian Federation, Moscow

 

FACTORS OF MIGRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN WATER OBJECTS AND IN THE NEARBY TERRITORIES

Abstract. The conditions, factors and evolutionary characteristics of objects that are sources of pollution of water basins with heavy metals are considered. In modern conditions, technogenesis is a source of heavy metals on the slopes, their transit along the slopes and accumulation in the bottom sediments of water basins. Various types of anthropogenic impacts are considered, which determine both the structure of heavy metals entering the slopes and the migration, accumulation, and almost finite deposits in water basins. Types of technogenic impact were typified by geometric parameters, quality and speed of its implementation. The allocation of these taxa is justified. The energy factors that determine the possible zones of temporary accumulation of heavy metals and areas of their final accumulation are estimated. The ranking of temporary, area, energy and other factors determining the pollution or prevention of pollution of the territory with heavy metals has been made. It is emphasized that the same types of impacts, depending on the engineering-geological and technogenic conditions of the territory can be both improving and worsening the ecological and geological situation. An example of secondary pollution of bottom sediments with heavy metals in the absence of local pollutants through the transit of contaminated bottom sediments over a considerable distance is given.

Key words: pollution, sediments, heavy metals, energy factors, potential barriers, technogenic pressure.

 

REFERENCES

1. Krupoderov V. S. Prirodnye geologicheskie i prirodno-tekhnogennye opasnosti. Problemy upravleniya dlya obespecheniya stabil'noj zhiznedeyatel'nosti // Mineral'nye resursy Rossii. Ekonomika i upravlenie. 2015. № 5. pp. 79-84.

2. Krupoderov V. S., Molodyh I. I., Krestin B. M., Mal'neva I. V., D'yakonova V. I. Inzhenerno-geologicheskie issledovaniya opasnyh geologicheskih processov i ih osobennosti v nachale XXI veka // Razvedka i ohrana nedr. 2014. № 8. pp. 23-28.

3. Korzhenevskij B. I., Kolomijcev N. V., Il'ina T. A., Get'man N. O. Monitoring zagryazneniya avtotransportom malyh rek Moskovskoj oblasti tyazhelymi metallami // Bezopasnost' zhiznedeyatel'nosti. 2018. № 4 (208). pp. 24-29.

4. Stoyashcheva N. V., Rybkina I. D. Transgranichnye problemy prirodopol'zovaniya v bassejne Irtysha // Geografiya i prirodnye resursy. 2013. № 1. pp. 26-32.

5. Mustafaev Zh. S., Kozykeeva A. T., Kirejcheva L. V., Tursynbaev N. A. Metodologicheskoe obosnovanie ekologicheskih uslug prirodnoj sistemy i antropogennoj deyatel'nosti gidroagrolandshaftnyh sistem // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchnyj zhurnal. 2017. № 5. pp. 88-98.

6. Korzhenevskij B. I., Simonova I. Yu., Kolomijcev N. V. Izmenenie harakteristik gravitacionnogo formirovaniya sklonov v zonah vozrastayushchego tekhnogennogo vozdejstviya (na primere zapadnoj chasti YUBK) // Issledovanie izmenenij gidrogeologicheskih i inzhenerno-geologicheskih uslovij pod vliyaniem vodno-hozyajstvennoj deyatel'nosti. M. : VSEGINGEO, 1988. pp. 79-91.

7. Rodzhers E. Fizika dlya lyuboznatel'nyh. M. : Mir, 1972. T. 2. 652 p.

8. Polunin G. V. Ekzogennye geodinamicheskie processy gumidnoj zony umerennogo klimata (fizicheskie aspekty ekzogennyh processov). M. : Nauka, 1983. 347 p.

9. Polunin G. V. Dinamika i prognoz ekzogennyh geologicheskih processov. M. : Nauka, 1989. 232 p.

10. Korzhenevskij B. I. Zonal'nost' energeticheskogo potenciala - osnova dlya prognozirovaniya gravitacionnyh processov v gornom regione // Metody regional'nogo inzhenerno-geologicheskogo prognozirovaniya. M. : VSEGINGEO, 1989. pp. 136-146.

11. Polunin G. V. Ekzogennye geodinamicheskie processy gumidnoj zony umerennogo klimata: avtoref. dis. doktora geogr. nauk : 11.00.04 / Polunin Georgij Vladimirovich. Novosibirsk, 1985. 33 p.

12. Kirejcheva L. V. Ekologicheskie osnovy kompleksnyh melioracij agrolandshaftov // V sb.: Ekologicheskie problemy melioracii. M. : UPK Fedorovec, 2002. pp. 5-9.

13. Mueller G. Schwermetalle in den Sedimenten des Rheins - Veraenderungen seit 1971 // Umschau 79. 1979. T. 24. pp. 778-783.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-45-51

УДК 621.785.616-192 

 

SERGEY K. FEDOROV, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

MAKSIM V. VLASOV, Postgradate

Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russian Federation, Moscow

ABDURACHMAN G. GAMIDOV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 

INCREASING THE WEAR RESISTANCE OF PARTS FROM STEEL 20HN3A BY ELECTROMECHANICAL SURFACE HARDENING

Abstract. Effective ways to increase the wear resistance of the executive surfaces of parts is an urgent task in themanufactureandrepair of machinery andtechnological equipment. Thework presents the results of comparative wear tests of samples of steel 20HN3A without hardening, after nitrocarburizing and after electromechanical surface hardening. The test duration was 60, 120, 240 and 480 seconds. Cylindrical samples were made from one rod. Nitrocarburizing was performed at a temperature from 850 to 870 oС for 10 hours. After nitrocarburizing, the samples were quenched directly from the furnace with cooling from 800 to 825 oС and the final operation was tempering at a temperature from 160 to 180 oС. Electromechanical surface hardening of cylindrical samples was carried out on a 16K20 screw-cutting lathe at a temperature in the tool-surface contact zone of 1000 from 1100 oС and a force in the contact zone of 400 N. Comparative tests of the wear resistance of the treated surface of the samples were carried out on a friction machine according to the method American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM G65). The wear rate of the samples after electromechanical surface hardening at the beginning of the test is 8.3 mg / min and after 480 s it is 5.58 mg / min. The wear rate of the samples after nitrocarburizing, respectively, is 9.0 mg / min and 5.16 mg / min. The practical significance of the research is related to the possibility of replacing the process of nitrocarburizing with a less expensive technology. The effectiveness of electromechanical surface hardening technology is associated with the possibility of implementing the method on metal cutting machines with the formation of high quality indicators of the surface layer of parts in terms of hardness, metal structure and hardening depth. The implementation of the research results allows the use of electromechanical surface hardening in the manufacture and restoration of shafts, bushings, gears, pinion shafts and other details in conditions of machine shops and sections of non-machine-building enterprises.

Key words: electromechanical treatment, carbonitriding, hardening, heat treatment, wear.

 

REFERENCES

1. Fedorov S. K. Povyshenie dolgovechnosti detalej sel'skohozyajstvennoj tekhniki elektromekhanicheskoj obrabotkoj: dis. doktora tekhn. nauk: 05.20.03 / Fedorov Sergej Konstantinоvich. M. : MGAU imeni V. P. Goryachkina, 2009. 246 р.

2. Askinazi B. M. Uprochnenie i vosstanovlenie detalej mashin elektromekhanicheskoj obrabotkoj. 3-e izd. pererab. i dopoln. M. : Mashinostroenie, 1989. 197 р.

3. Fedorova L. V., Strel'cov V. V., Alekseeva Yu. S., Fedorov S. K. Elektromekhanicheskaya obrabotka i vosstanovlenie detalej dorozhno-stroitel'noj tekhniki // Stroitel'nye i dorozhnye mashiny. 2008. № 8. рр. 32-35.

4. Fedorov S. K., Fedorova L. V. Nagrev i davlenie uluchshat poverhnost' // Za rulem. 1998. № 9. рр. 175.

5. Elagina O. Yu. Tekhnologicheskie metody povysheniya iznosostojkosti detalej mashin. M. : Universitetskaya kniga, 2009. 488 р.

6. Fedorova L. V., Fedorov S. K. Rasshirenie tekhnologicheskih vozmozhnostej tokarnovintoreznogo stanka // Tekhnika i oborudovanie dlya sela. 2005. № 12. рр. 22–24.

7. Fedorova L. V. Fedorov S. K., Semenov A. N. Povyshenie nadezhnosti bystroiznashivayushchihsya detalej // Tekhnologii mira. 2008. № 6. рр. 30–32.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-52-59

УДК 621.433-83 

 

OTARI N. DIDMANIDZE, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

ARTEMBEK S. GUZALOV, Postgraduate

NIKOLAY A. BOLSHAKOV, Postgraduate

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 

THE MODERN LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF ENGINES WITH GAS-ENGINE AND ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS ON THE TRANSPORT AND TRACTION MEANS

Abstract. The questions of creating and supporting the current state of tractor engineering, namely, the direction of development of modernization of power plants of hybrid and electric engines, are highlighted. The scientific works are briefly reviewed and achievements of candidates and doctors of technical sciences are aimed at the development of mobile power units. Works in the field of studying the energy efficiency of heat engines are also considered, as well as directions for the development of innovative solutions in the agricultural industry. The advantages and disadvantages of modern engines are analyzed, the prospects of using electric tractor its class are shown as a direction for environmental safety, in particular the reduction of environmental pollution, the complete elimination of harmful exhaust emissions, such as CO2, and the prospects for the application of improving the operation of gas engine engines aimed at consistent development theory of hydro-thermodynamic properties of functional units based on the principles of constructing operational GOVERNMENTAL properties of vehicles. The analysis of leading scientific works on the creation of new design solutions for gas equipment by the following companies and institutes, namely: Dutch company VIALLE, Company Robert Bosch GmbH, Scientists of the University of Kookmin and Daejin (South Korea). Domestic engine designs that are popular today are reviewed.

Key words: tractor engineering, environmental safety, agriculture, range of capacities, resource saving, productivity, reliability, power plants, electric tractors, energy saturation, design and layout features.

 

REFERENCES

1. Gosudarstvennaya programma razvitiya sel'skogo hozyajstva i regulirovaniya rynkov sel'skohozyajstvennoj produkcii, syr'ya i prodovol'stviya na 2013-2020 gody. Utverzhdena Postanovleniem Pravitel'stva Rossijskoj Federacii ot 14 iyulya 2012 goda № 717. M. : FGBNU "Rosinformagrotekh". 2012. 204 p.

2. Izmajlov A. Yu., Didmanidze O. N., Asadov D. G., Mityagin G. E., Karev A. M. Tekhnicheskaya ekspluataciya mobil'nyh elektroagregatov : Monografiya. M. : OOO "UMC "Triada", 2016. 289 p.

3. Lapshin F. V rozetku! // Avtorevyu. 2012. № 2. pp. 88–91.

4. Solncev A. A. Gosti iz budushchego // Kommercheskij transport. 2011. № 5. pp. 54–56.

5. Didmanidze O. N., Ivanov S. A., Pulyaev N. N. Effektivnost' tyagovo-transportnyh sredstv pri ispol'zovanii nakopitelej energii. Irkutsk : OOO "Megaprint", 2017. 189 p.

6. Evtyushenkov N. E., Habatov R. Sh. Nauchnye osnovy razvitiya perspektivnoj sistemy transportnogo obsluzhivaniya sel'skohozyajstvennogo proizvodstva: Monografiya. M. : Put' Art, 2004. 92 p.

7. Izmajlov A. Yu. O mashinno-tekhnologicheskom obespechenii intellektual'nogo sel'skohozyajstvennogo proizvodstva // Innovacionnoe razvitie APK Rossii na baze intellektual'nyh mashinnyh tekhnologii: Sb. dokladov Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-tekhnicheskoj konferencii. M. : VIM, 2014. pp. 12-16.

8. Chekmarev P. A. Ispytaniya na kachestvo. M. : FGNU "Rosinformagrotekh", 2018. pp. 4-7.

9. Hakimov R. T. Povyshenie energoeffektivnosti avtotraktornoj tekhniki na osnove sovershenstvovaniya toplivnoj sistemy gazovogo dvigatelya: dis. doktora tekhn. nauk : 05.20.03 / Hakimov Ramil' Tagirovich. M. , 2019. 305 p.

10. Mezhdunarodnyj agrarnyj internet-portal i zhurnal AgroONE. Tendencii razvitiya konstrukcij traktorov [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.agroone.info/publication/tendencii-razvitija-konstrukcij-traktorov

11. Battalhanov A. A. Metan na transporte. Problemy, zadachi i perspektivy razvitiya rynkov komprimirovannogo prirodnogo gaza. Astana : Izdatel'skie resheniya, 2016. 80 p.

12. Didmanidze O. N., Guzalov A. S. Ocenka tekhnicheskih harakteristik silovyh ustanovok na baze traktora MTZ-920 // Avtotransportnaya tekhnika XXI veka : Sb. statej III Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii / Pod red. O. N. Didmanidze, N. E. Zimina, D. V. Vinogradova. ООО "Megapolis", 2018. pр. 77-86.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-60-68

УДК 631.171:621.865.8

 

YURIY G. ALEINIKOV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Applicant

YANA G. MITYAGINA, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 

RELIABLE DETERMINATION OF THE TIME OF THE TOUCH TIME OF A SUPPORTING SURFACE OF A STEPPING MACHINE

Abstract. The active development of robotics opens up new prospects for the use of machines in agriculture. Automatic machines are able to perform many types of work faster and better than a person. One of the tasks that must be solved when creating robotic technical means is the creation of a complex of sensors, on the basis of which it is possible to create a mathematical model of the automatic movement of a walking machine on an uneven surface and poorly bearing soil. The article provides an overview of tried and tested sensors to reliably determine the moment when the support touches the surface. The design of the sensors, their features and circuit diagrams of connection are considered. During the simulation of the trajectories of the motion of the tip of the machine support, optimal amplification parameters of the analog signals from the sensors were found, a movable terminal structure with a ball bearing was tested, time intervals and the sequence of sensors were determined. The result of the study is the creation of a complex of touch sensors and circuit diagrams, which serve as the basis for creating a model and designing software for automatic movement of the machine. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the practical use of sensors, to determine their characteristics and the characteristics of the response when interacting with an uneven surface and soil.

Key words: robotics, walking machine with dynamic stability, motion control algorithm, support, sensor.

 

REFERENCES

1. Bekker M. G. Vvedenie v teoriyu sistem mestnost' – mashina. M. : Mashinostroenie, 1973. 520 p.

2. Zabavnikov N. A. Osnovy teorii transportnyh gusenichnyh mashin. M. : Mashinostroenie, 1975. 448 p.

3. Didmanidze O. N., Mityagina Ya. G. Alejnikov Yu. G. Metodika opredeleniya rabochego prostranstva opory // Sb. materialov mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii "Plody i ovoshchi – osnova struktury zdorovogo pitaniya cheloveka". Michurinsk : Michurinskij gosudarstvennyj agrarnyj universitet, 2012. pp. 378-380.

4. Didmanidze O. N., Mityagina Ya. G., Alejnikov Yu. G. Princip peremeshcheniya opor shagayushchih mashin vo vremya dvizheniya // Sb. materialov mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoprakticheskoj konferencii "Plody i ovoshchi – osnova struktury zdorovogo pitaniya cheloveka". Michurinsk : Michurinskij gosudarstvennyj agrarnyj universitet, 2012. pp. 381-384.

5. Alejnikov Yu. G. Metodika rascheta privodov dlya mnogonogih shagayushchih mashin na primere shestinogoj shagayushchej mashiny // Mezhdunarodnyj tekhniko-ekonomicheskij zhurnal. 2013. № 1. pp. 114-116.

6. Alejnikov Yu. G., Mityagina Ya. G. Modelirovanie parametrov tekhnologicheskoj robotizirovannoj mashiny: uchebnoe posobie. M. : OOO "UMC "Triada", 2016. 120 p.

7. Didmanidze O. N., Mityagina Ya. G., Alejnikov Yu. G. Osobennosti primeneniya datchikov v avtomaticheskoj sisteme dvizheniya shagayushchih mashin // Mezhdunarodnyj tekhnikoekonomicheskij zhurnal. 2012. № 5. pp. 72-75.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-69-74

УДК 631.37-192

 

OLEG V. VINOGRADOV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

ROMAN N. EGOROV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

ALEKSANDR N. ZHURILIN, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 

SECURITY ASSURANCE OF SELF-PROPELLED EQUIPMENT DRIVERS AT AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES

Abstract. During the operation of self-propelled vehicles in agricultural enterprises it is required to ensure the reliability of the driver’s composition, which directly affects the safety of the work performed, as well as the traffic. In the conditions of agricultural enterprises, drivers of self-propelled cars drive tractors with trailed, mounted, semi-mounted machines, loaders, excavators, self-propelled combines and many others that work not only in closed areas, but can also be participants in the movement on public roads, subject to the Rules traffic. Analyzing the legislation in the field of road safety, we see stringent requirements in the field of road safety for legal entities and individual entrepreneurs operating vehicles, but legally not related to the operation of self-propelled vehicles. To ensure labor protection requirements for the operation of self-propelled vehicles on the territory of agricultural enterprises without access to public roads, there are many regulatory documents of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation. Undoubtedly, they contribute to the reduction of injuries in the field of operation of self-propelled vehicles and increase the reliability of drivers, but the current legislation does not clearly regulate the issues of ensuring road safety during the operation of self-propelled cars in comparison with the operation of motor vehicles, for example, the use of waybills of selfpropelled cars, monitoring of the technical condition self-propelled machinery before the start of the shift, monitoring the health of drivers of self-propelled cars. The purpose of this article is to consider measures to ensure the reliability of self-propelled car drivers in agricultural enterprises.

Key words: driver reliability, road safety, employee qualifications.

 

REFERENCES

1. Vinogradov O. V. Trebovaniya zakonodatel'stva Rossijskoj Federacii k avtotransportnym predpriyatiyam po kvalifikacii lic, otvetstvennyh za bezopasnost' dorozhnogo dvizheniya // Sbornik statej III Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii "Avtotransportnaya tekhnika XXI veka". M. : OOO "Megapolis", 2018. pp. 157-164.

2. Vinogradov O. V. Trebovaniya federal'nogo zakonodatel'stva po obespecheniyu bezopasnosti dorozhnogo dvizheniya pri kommercheskoj ekspluatacii avtomobil'nogo transporta // Sbornik "Doklady TSKHA". Vypusk 291, chast' 2. M. : Rossijskij gosudarstvennyj agrarnyj universitet – MSKHA imeni K. A. Timiryazeva. 2019. pp. 14-17.

3. Informacionnyj portal ob alkotesterah [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://alcotester.ru/cntnt/napravleniya/predreysoviy-osmotr/n16-prilojeniya.html

4. Elektronnyj fond pravovoj i normativno-tekhnicheskoj dokumentacii [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/901880246

5. Medicinskoe obespechenie bezopasnosti dorozhnogo dvizheniya (organizaciya i poryadok provedeniya predrejsovyh medicinskih osmotrov voditelej transportnyh sredstv) metodicheskie rekomendacii [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://mvf.klerk.ru/auto/auto_012.htm

6. Federal'nyj zakon 196-FZ "O bezopasnosti dorozhnogo dvizheniya" [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.gosthelp.ru/text/Federalnyjzakon196FZObezo.html

7. NAO MMC "Mediana" [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL : http://mediana-perm.ru/predpriyatiyam/predrejsovye-meditsinskie-osmotry

8. Pen'shin N. V. Metodologiya obespecheniya bezopasnosti dorozhnogo dvizheniya na avtomobil'nom transporte [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.tstu.ru/book/elib/pdf/2012/penshin2.pdf

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-75-81

УДК 651.28:35

 

NIKOLAY N. PULYAEV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

VLADIMIR L. PILSHCHIKOV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 
SYSTEM APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM OF RESOURCE-SAVING USE OF MACHINE-TRACTOR UNITS IN CROP

Abstract. In the agro-industrial complex of any country, including Russia, along with large agricultural enterprises and agricultural holdings, small companies and farms operate that have modest production indicators and do not have a large machine-tractor fleet, labor and financial resources. Despite this, the problems of highly efficient use of agricultural machinery are as acute for them as for large enterprises. The solution to this problem consists of several interrelated tasks that cannot be described by a single mathematical model based on some single criterion of resource conservation. Due to the fact that the objects of research used, the principles of work, the possible criteria for resource conservation and the requirements for the quality of the technological process differ significantly. The most effective thing for solving such problems is a multilevel system approach. Based on this approach, the paper presents  a structural hierarchical diagram of resource-saving use of agricultural units. Integrated problem solving is carried out at ten interconnected technical and economic levels, each of which has its own optimality criterion. In solving this problem, we obtain the optimal amount of equipment and human resources that provide the main criterion for the effectiveness of any agricultural enterprise: maximum total profit. This optimization scheme can be applied not only to crop production, but also to other sectors of agriculture.

Key words: saving resource, machine-tractor units, optimization, queuing theory, systems approach, agricultural efficiency, peasant farms.

 

REFRENCES

1. Korotkih Yu. S., Chutcheva Yu. V. Sovremennoe sostoyanie mashinno-traktornogo parka v Rossijskoj Federacii: osnovnye tendencii i perspektivy razvitiya // Mezhdunarodnyj tekhnikoekonomicheskij zhurnal. 2016. № 6. pp. 25-29.

2. Korotkih Yu. S. Mery podderzhki tekhnicheskoj i tekhnologicheskoj modernizacii sel'skogo hozyajstva Rossijskoj Federacii // Nauka bez granic. 2016. № 4 (4). pp. 14-18.

3. Pulyaev N. N. Povyshenie effektivnosti ispol'zovaniya toplivozapravochnyh sredstv v sostave uborochno-transportnyh kompleksov: dis. kand. tekh. nauk: 05.20.03 / Pulyaev Nikolaj Nikolaevich; Mesto zashchity [Mosk. gos. agroinzhenernyj un-t]. M., 2005. 126 p.

4. Pulyaev N. N., Sulejmanov N. H. Obespechenie effektivnosti processov po uborke fruktov. M. : OOO "UMC "Triada", 2014. 120 p.

5. Samsonov V. A., Zangiev A. A., Didmanidze O. N. Avtomatizirovannoe proektirovanie resursosberegayushchih mashinno-traktornyh agregatov. M. : KolosS, 1997. 232 p.

6. Ventcel' E. S. Issledovanie operacij: zadachi, principy, metodologiya. 2-e izd., stereotipnoe. M. : Nauka, 1988. 208 p.

7. Korotkih Yu. S. Optimal'noe resursosberegayushchee proektirovanie uborki kartofelya v Lipeckoj oblasti // Avtotransportnaya tekhnika XXI veka: sbornik statej III Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii / Pod red. O. N. Didmanidze, N. E. Zimina, D. V. Vinogradova. М. : ООО "Megapolis", 2018. pp. 194-203.

 

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ENERGY

 

 

 

DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-82-87

УДК 631.37-192

 

EKATERINA G. IVAKINA, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

VALERIY G. TIHNENKO, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Professor

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS CASES DURING OPERATING OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

Abstract. Statistical data of accidents at electric power enterprises are presented. Information about injuries is presented in the form of brief descriptions of industrial accidents. The main sources and causes of occupational injuries at electric power enterprises have been established. Despite the fact that the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation constantly monitors occupational injuries, the policy of the electric grid and generating enterprises in the field of labor protection is aimed at improving the level of production safety, the number of injured at the enterprises only increases. In recent years, the types of occupational injuries have not changed. The main types of industrial accidents are electric shocks and falls from a height or surface. In order to ensure the safety of personnel of electric power enterprises, reduce the level of industrial injuries and prevent accidents at work, recommendations are given for managers of electric grid and generating enterprises.

Key words: occupational injuries, injured, briefing, industrial accident, safety.

 

REFERENCES

1. Federal'naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoj statistiki [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.gks.ru/

2. Ob analize neschastnyh sluchaev na energoustanovkah [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.gosnadzor.ru/

3. Informacionno-analiticheskaya spravka po travmatizmu Ministerstva energetiki Rossijskoj Federacii [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://minenergo.gov.ru/

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-67-4-88-93

УДК 621.315-047.58

 

ANDREY V. USANOV, Postgraduate

Smolensk branch of Moscow Power Engineering Institute Russian, Russian Federation, Smolensk

 
BASIC MODELLING OF CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS FOR LOW VOLTAGE BALANCING DEVICES

Abstract. Nowadays, the design of industrial electrical receivers is becoming more complicated due to the development of technological processes. This causes high quality requirements for electricity both at the stage of production of electrical equipment and during its operation. One of the indicators of power quality is the level of asymmetry of currents and voltages. During the operation of urban and rural power supply systems of 0.38 kV voltage asymmetry is the cause of currents and voltages of the reverse and zero sequence. This leads to a significant increase in power losses and deterioration of the operation of individual electrical receivers (reduction of the electric motors service life, violation of the operating mode and the subsequent failure of reactive power compensation devices, a significant deterioration in the operating conditions of valve converters, etc.), and the whole power supply system. This article presents the results of modeling two primary types of balancing devices which are based on individual phase injection of additional voltage via electromagnetic connections. Evaluation and analysis of their performance are also included. Conclusion is made about the prospects of realizing such devices in practise.

Key words: power quality, current-using equipment, balancing device, voltage boost, electric circuits, the voltage unbalance.

 

REFRENCES

1. GOST 32144-2013 Elektricheskaya energiya. Sovmestimost' tekhnicheskih sredstv elektromagnitnaya. Normy kachestva elektricheskoj energii v sistemah elektrosnabzheniya obshchego naznacheniya. Vved. 2014-07-01. M. : Standartinform.

2. Ananicheva S. S., Alekseev A. A., Myzin A. L. Kachestvo elektroenergii. Regulirovanie napryazheniya i chastoty v energosistemah Ekaterinburg : UrFU, 2012. 93 p.

3. Energosberezhenie v nizkovol'tnyh elektricheskih setyah pri nesimmetrichnoj nagruzke : Monografiya / Pod obshchej red. F. D. Kosuhova. SPb. : Lan', 2016. 280 p.

4. Samarin G. N., Ruzh'ev V. A., Egorov M. Yu. Sposoby korrekcii urovnej napryazheniya i nessimetrii napryazheniya v setyah 0,4 kV // Izvestiya Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. 2017. № 1. pp. 279-286.

5. Naumov I. V., Yamshchikova I. V. Effektivnost' primeneniya simmetriruyushchih ustrojstv dlya povysheniya kachestva i snizheniya poter' elektricheskoj energii v sel'skih setyah 0,38 kV // Vestnik Altajskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. 2015. № 11. pp. 113-118.

6. Kosouhov F. D., Vasil'ev N. V., Gorbunova A. O., Teremeckij M. Yu. Snizhenie poter' i povyshenie kachestva elektricheskoj energii v sel'skih setyah 0,38 kV [Primenenie fil'trosimmetriruyushchih ustrojstv] // Mekhanizaciya i elektrifikaciya sel'skogo hozyajstva. 2014. № 6. pp. 16-20.

 

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