THE INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL-ECONOMIC
JOURNAL

Contents

PROCESSES AND MACHINES OF AGROENGINEERING SYSTEMS

 

Rakutko S. A., Ivannikova N. Yu., Zakirova V. R.

Optimization problems of ensuring reliability of energy systems by methods of mathematical modeling

 
7

Beznosyuk R. V., Rembalovich G. K., Chernyshev A. D.

Probability of uniform loading of vehicle

 
16

Ashabokov H. H., Fiapshev A. G.

Scientific support of technologies of preseeding soil preparation

 
22

Karpenko N. P., Egemberdiev D. K.

Improving the fertility of marginal gray soils with the use of biomeliorants with drip irrigation

 
29

Nazarov I. V., Belousova N. N., Tolstoukhova T. N.

Membrane press for spin grapes

 
36

Lazarenko M. L., Lazarenko L. M., Sablin A. I.

Root method of setting up temperature controllers in the greenhouse farm

 
42

Kabashov V. Yu., Andrianova L. P.

Improving the operational reliability of overhead lines of 10 (6) kv at influence of unfavorable climatic factors

 
48

Shmigel V. V., Uglovskiy A. S., Egorichev V. V.

Management of high voltage source system for ozone generation in incubator

 
55

Andreev O. P., Sleptsov O. N.

Modeling of diesel engine operation process as an object of speed control

 
63

Korol’kova L. I., Mashrabov N.

Non-parametric evaluation of mean life by censored data

 
71

Shukhanov S. N., Skutelnik V. V., Malomyzhev O. L.

Technique of carrying out heat tests of units of transmission of the autotractor machinery of agro-industrial complex

 
77

Popov V. V., Mochunova N. A., Karapetian M. A.

Formation of optimization methods and needs assessment in maintenance and repair of ICC

 
84

Kopteva N. A., Udintsova N. M.

Algorithmic model of analysis of efficiency functioning of machine-tractor units in specific operation conditions

 
90

 

 

ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES INDEXED IN AGRIS

 

Abstracts

99

 

 

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PROCESSES AND MACHINES

OF AGROENGINEERING SYSTEMS

 

 

 

DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-7-15

УДК (338.43:621.31):519.8-192

 

SERGEY A. RAKUTKO, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

Federal Scientific Agroengineering "Centre VIM",

Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production, Russian Federation, St. Peterburg

NATALYA Yu. IVANNIKOVA, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences

VALERIA R. ZAKIROVA, Specialist

Branch of Public Joint Stock Company "Interregional Distribution Grid Company of the North-West" "Kolenergo", Russian Federation, Murmansk

 

OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS OF ENSURING RELIABILITY OF ENERGY SYSTEMS BY METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING

Abstract. Nowadays, electricity plays a crucial role in life support and production. Accidents in power generation and transmission systems can paralyze the life of an entire region. Therefore, great importance is attached to the reliability of electric power systems. Due to the integrated automation of technological processes of enterprises, higher demands are placed on the reliability indicators of power supply systems. When designing power systems, one of the most time-consuming issues is ensuring the functional, technological and structural reliability of power systems. For an energy management system, which is a complex of large developing energy systems, the choice of optimization parameter and reliability level is a difficult task. Wrong choice of optimization, reliability level can lead to suboptimal distribution of very large funds between subsystems and elements of the system and at the same time not ensure the power supply of the national economy at the proper level. Based on the order of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation dated February 28, 2018 No. 121 “On approval of the scheme and program for the development of the Unified Energy System of Russia for 2018-2024”, optimization problems of ensuring the functional, technological and structural reliability of energy systems and complexes using mathematical modeling methods during design are considered and during operation in order to study and optimize the structure and parameters of energy systems and complexes and occurring in energy systems their processes.

Key words: technological reliability, structural reliability, functional reliability, optimization, reliability level.

 

REFERENCES

1. Vinogradov A. V., Per'kov R. A. Analiz povrezhdaemosti elektrooborudovaniya elektricheskih setej i obosnovanie meropriyatij po povysheniyu nadezhnosti elektrosnabzheniya potrebitelej // Vestnik NGIEI. 2015. № 12(55). pp. 12-20.

2. Ershov M. S., Anciforov V. A. Prichiny i parametry kratkovremennyh narushenij elektrosnabzheniya promyshlennyh ob"ektov // Territoriya neftegaz. 2014. № 10. pp. 18-23.

3. Ershov M. S., Egorov A. V., Anciforov V. A. Metody ocenki nadezhnosti i nezavisimosti istochnikov pitaniya v sistemah promyshlennogo elektrosnabzheniya // Promyshlennaya energetika. 2014. № 1. pp. 2-6.

4. Rakut'ko S. A. Teoriya energosberezheniya: nauchnye abstrakcii i prakticheskaya konkretnost' // Izvestiya Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. 2013. № 31. pp. 208-214.

5. Skrebneva E. V. Analiz metodov povysheniya nadezhnosti elektrosnabzheniya // Sbornik materialov IX Vserossijskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii molodyh uchenyh "Rossiya molodaya". Kemerovo : KGTU, 2017. pp. 48-52.

6. Litovka O. P. Strukturno-dinamicheskij podhod k issledovaniyu ekologo-ekonomicheskih sistem // Ekonomika promyshlennosti. 2005. T. 29. № 3. pp. 52-63.

7. Skripelev A. A., Tkachenko A. V. Parametry nadezhnosti sistem elektrosnabzheniya // Uchenye zapiski Komsomol'skogo-na-Amure gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2016. № III1(27). pp. 11-19.

8. Shushpanov I. N., Suslov K. V. Razrabotka i issledovanie metoda rascheta nadezhnosti raspredelitel'noj seti // Materialy Vserossijskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem. Irkutsk : IrGTU, 2010. pp. 13-21.

9. Shushpanov I. N., Suslov K. V. Razrabotka i issledovanie metoda rascheta nadezhnosti radial'noj raspredelitel'noj seti // Materialy Vserossijskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem. Irkutsk : IrGTU, 2011. pp. 17-24.

10. Tartak L. A., Imanakunova Zh. S. Reshenie prikladnyh zadach elektroenergetiki v Matlab // Izvestiya KGTU im. I. Razzakova. Bishkek : KGTU, 2014. pp. 185-188.

11. Shushpanov I. N., Suslov K. V. Model' nadezhnosti raspredelitel'noj elektricheskoj seti // Materialy Vserossijskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem. Irkutsk : IrGTU, 2012. pp. 30-34.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-16-21

УДК 631.35:656 

 

ROMAN V. BEZNOSYUK, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

GEORGY K. REMBALOVICH, Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Advanced

Ryazan State Agrotechnological University Named after P. A. Kostychev, Russian Federation, Ryazan

ALEXEY D. CHERNYSHEV, Senior Lecturer

Ryazan Institute (branch) of Moscow, Polytechnic University, Russian Federation, Ryazan

 

PROBABILITY OF UNIFORM LOADING OF VEHICLE

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of uniform loading of the vehicle body (dump trucks, semi-trailers, tractor dumptrailers, semi-trailers andcontainertrucks) whenharvesting potatoes. The authors of the article consider the condition under which the direction of movement of harvesting equipment and the vehicle are parallel, and their mutual orientation (aiming) occurs with some shift of the driver's field of view in relation to the unloading device. The calculation of the probability of accurate unloading of potato harvesters in the body of the vehicle with different body sizes. As an example, the probability of accurate unloading from the hopper of the potato harvester to the center of the vehicle body of the most common trailer 2PTS-4 model 887B from the first attempt is calculated. It is concluded that with the increase in the size of the potato harvester and the vehicle body, the probability of accurate unloading is significantly reduced. A recommendation to improve the accuracy and uniformity of the load applying system combines the orientation and positioning of the vehicle relative to the potato harvester, that allows to exclude the losses of potatoes and to improve the performance of the potato unloading of machinery and transport efficiency of potatoes to processing and storage.

Key words: potato harvester, transportation, orientation and positioning system, loading, vehicle.

 

REFERENCES

1. Nekotorye voprosy organizacii transportnyh rabot pri mashinnoj uborke kartofelya / I. A. Uspenskij, G. K. Rembalovich, G. D. Kokorev [i dr.] // Vestnik RGATU. 2010. № 4(8). pp. 72-74.

2. Innovacionnye resheniya uborochno-transportnyh tekhnologicheskih processov i tekhnicheskih sredstv v kartofelevodstve / G. K. Rembalovich, N. V. Byshov, S. N. Borychev [i dr.] // Sbornik nauchnyh dokladov Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-tekhnicheskoj konferencii. Chast' 2. M. : VIM, 2011. pp. 455-461.

3. Beznosyuk R. V., Byshov D. N., Bulahov E. Yu. Snizhenie poter' produkcii kartofelevodstva v tekhnologicheskoj cepochke "uborka transportirovkahranenie" // Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii "Nauchno-prakticheskie aspekty innovacionnyh tekhnologij vozdelyvaniya i pererabotki kartofelya". Ryazan', 2015. pp. 14-20.

4. Tekhnologiya uborki kartofelya v slozhnyh polevyh usloviyah s primeneniem perspektivnyh reshenij v konstrukcii i obsluzhivanii kombajnov: monografiya / N. V. Byshov, S. N. Borychev, N. I. Vereshchagin [i dr.]. Ryazan' : FGBOU VO RGATU, 2015. 304 p.

5. Ventcel' E. S. Teoriya veroyatnostej: uchebnik dlya vuzov. 6-e izd. ster. M. : Vysshaya shkola, 1999. 576 c. [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://sernam.ru/book_tp.php?id=45

6. Sokolov G. A., Chistyakova N. A. Teoriya veroyatnostej: uchebnik. M. : Ekzamen, 2005. 416 p.

7. Analiz ekspluatacionno-tekhnologicheskih  trebovanij  k  kartofeleuborochnym  mashinam i pokazatelej ih raboty v usloviyah Ryazanskoj oblasti / G. K. Rembalovich, I. A. Uspenskij, A. A. Golikov, R. V. Beznosyuk [i dr.] // Vestnik RGATU. 2013. № 1(17). pp. 64-68.

8. Beznosyuk R. V., Rembalovich G. K., Byshov N. V., Uspenskij I. A. Povyshenie nadezhnosti kartofeleuborochnogo kombajna sovershenstvovaniem organa vtorichnoj separacii // Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii RGATU. Ryazan', 2011. pp. 98-101.

9. Povyshenie nadezhnosti tekhniki v sel'skom hozyajstve na osnove primeneniya sistem nepreryvnogo diagnostirovaniya / R. V. Beznosyuk, V. V. Fokin, N. V. Byshov [i dr.] // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchnyj zhurnal. 2017. № 2. pp. 112-116.

10. Rembalovich G. K., Beznosyuk R. V. Teoreticheskie osnovy issledovaniya rabochih organov na osnove modelirovaniya processa vtorichnoj separacii v kartofeleuborochnyh mashinah // Politematicheskij setevoj elektronnyj nauchnyj zhurnal Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. 2013. № 89 [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://ej.kubagro.ru/2013/05/pdf/57.pdf

11. Aktual'nye voprosy sovershenstvovaniya transportnogo obespecheniya sel'skohozyajstvennyh processov s primeneniem interaktivnoj diagnostiki / G. K. Rembalovich, M. Yu. Kostenko, R. V. Beznosyuk [i dr.] // Materialy Vserossijskogo nauchno-prakticheskogo kruglogo stola "Aktual'nye voprosy material'no-tekhnicheskogo snabzheniya organov i uchrezhdenij ugolovno-ispolnitel'noj sistemy". Ryazan' : APU FSIN, 2017. pp. 28-35.

12. Perspektivnaya sistema kontrolya zagruzki naklonnoj kamery zernouborochnogo kombajna / N. V. Byshov, R. V. Beznosyuk, V. V. Fokin [i t.d.] // Sbornik nauchnyh dokladov Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-tekhnicheskoj konferencii "Intellektual'nye mashinnye tekhnologii i tekhnika dlya realizacii Gosudarstvennoj programmy razvitiya sel'skogo hozyajstva". M. : Vserossijskij nauchnoissledovatel'skij institut mekhanizacii sel'skogo hozyajstva, 2015. pp. 182-185.

13. Interaktivnaya diagnostika mobil'noj tekhniki v sel'skom hozyajstve / V. V. Akimov, N. V. Byshov, S. N. Borychev [i dr.] // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchnyj zhurnal. 2017. № 2. pp. 106-111.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-22-28

УДК 631.5 

 

HACHIM H. ASHABOKOV, Postgraduate

AMUR G. FIAPSHEV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Kabardino-Balkarian State Agricultural University named after V. M. Kokov, Russian Federation, Nalchik

 

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT OF TECHNOLOGIES OF PRESEEDING SOIL PREPARATION 

Abstract. The constructive and technological scheme of the arable and milling unit for preseeding preparation of the soil consisting of a plow and a mill executed in the form of a cylindrical drum with the cuts on its surface forming mill sections is proved. On a cylindrical surface of each section of a mill three cutting and three percussions knives are rigidly established. The mill is attached to a plow with a possibility of change of an angle of its installation in the horizontal plane and a possibility of regulation of depth of processing of the soil. The offered arable and milling unit allows: to carry out plowing of the soil with crushing of large soil blocks, lumps, the vegetable remains and alignment of a surface of the soil; to provide high quality of training of soils to crops; to lower power expenses, due to combination of several operations by preparation of soils for crops; to lower material inputs by preparation of soils for crops. Rational values of the key parameters of the unit having a decisive influence on process of its work are established. Agrotechnical assessment of use of the offered design showed that it provides: decrease in density of the soil in the horizon from 0 to 10 cm, increase in porosity; increase in productivity of crops. Assessment of cost efficiency showed that as a result of use of the arable and milling unit decrease cost of works and power consumption of process of preseeding preparation of the soil.

Key words:  the soil, processing, the combined units, the arable and milling unit, efficiency, structure, crushing of blocks, alignment of a surface.

 

REFERENCES

1. Pat. RU 168218 Rossijskaya Federaciya, MPK7 A 01 V 49/02. Kombinirovannyj pochvoobrabatyvayushchij agregat / Apazhev A. K., Hazhmetov L. M., Shekihachev Yu. A., Ashabokov H. M. i dr.; zayavitel' i patentoobladatel' FGBOU VO Kabardino-Balkarskij GAU. № 2016125675; zayavl. 27.06.16; opubl. 24.01.2017, Byul. №3. 2 p.

2. Apazhev A. K., Fomenko S. A. Innovacionnaya tekhnologiya i kombinirovannyj pahotnyj agregat dlya osnovnoj obrabotki pochv // Materialy V Mezhvuzovskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii «Innovacii v agropromyshlennom komplekse (22-23 aprelya 2016 goda, g. Nal'chik). Nal'chik : Kabardino-Balkarskij GAU, 2016. pp. 15-17.

3. Apazhev A. K., Shekihachev Yu. A., Hazhmetov L. M. Rezul'taty proizvodstvennyh ispytanij kombinirovannogo pochvoobrabatyvayushchego agregata // Sel'skij mekhanizator. 2016. № 8. pp. 10-11.

4. Ashabokov H. H., Hazhmetov L. M., Shekihachev Yu. A. Kombinirovannye pahotnye agregaty i puti ih sovershenstvovaniya // Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii "Aktual'nye problemy i innovacionnye tekhnologii v otraslyah APK", posvyashchennoj 35-letiyu Kabardino-Balkarskogo GAU. Nal'chik : Kabardino-Balkarskij GAU, 2016. pp. 21-25.

5. Ashabokov H. H., Hazhmetov L. M., Shekihachev Yu. A. Razrabotka agregata dlya predposevnoj podgotovki pochvy // Sovremennye nauchnye issledovaniya i razrabotki. 2017. № 4 (12). pp. 363-365.

6. Ashabokov H. H., Hazhmetov L. M., Shekihachev Yu. A. Obosnovanie konstruktivnotekhnologicheskoj skhemy kombinirovannogo pahotnogo agregata // Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj (zaochnoj) nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii "Poslednie tendencii v oblasti nauki i obrazovaniya". 2017. pp. 35-40.

7. Apazhev A. K., Shekihachev Yu. A., Hazhmetov L. M. Innovacionnye tekhnologicheskie i tekhnicheskie resheniya po povysheniyu plodorodiya pochv v usloviyah sklonovyh erodirovannyh chernozemnyh pochv Yuga Rossii: monografiya. Nal'chik, 2017. 344 p.

8. Metodika opredeleniya ekonomicheskoj effektivnosti tekhnologij i sel'skohozyajstvennoj tekhniki. Ch. 1. M., 1998. 217 p.

9. Metodika opredeleniya ekonomicheskoj effektivnosti tekhnologij i sel'skohozyajstvennoj tekhniki. Ch. 2. M., 1998. 251 p.

10. Minakov I. A., Sabetova L. A., Kulikov N. I. Ekonomika sel'skogo hozyajstva. M. : Kolos, 2002. 323 p.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-36-41

УДК 634.8 

 

IGOR V. NAZAROV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

NADEZHDA N. BELOUSOVA, Master Student

TATYANA N. TOLSTOUKHOVA, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Don State Agrarian University,

Azov-Black Sea Engineering Institute, Russian Federation, Zernograd

 

MEMBRANE PRESS FOR SPIN GRAPES

Abstract. The process of pressing grape pulp is one of the most important technological processes in winemaking. The wort obtained during the pressing process has a direct impact on the quality of the wines produced. For pressing grape pulp, basket, screw and pneumatic membrane presses are used. They differ from each other constructively and have their own advantages and disadvantages. Basket presses provide high quality pressing, slightly damage the skin of grapes and practically do not crush the seeds. However, they have low productivity and require significant labor costs during operation and maintenance. Screw presses have high productivity, create higher pressure compared to basket presses, but during the pressing process they rub the peel of the grapes and damage the bones, which affects the quality of the resulting wort. Membrane pneumatic presses are more productive compared to basket presses. In the process of pressing the grape pulp on the presses of this type, crushing of the bone is eliminated and the grinding of the skin of the grape berries is significantly reduced, which improves the quality of the resulting wort. Based on the analysis of structural solutions and the principle of operation of pneumatic membrane presses, a vacuum-type membrane press design is proposed that provides a more “soft” pressing mode for whole grapes and grape pulp, and minimizes contact of the pressed raw material with air and completely eliminates it contact with the air of the resulting wort.

Key words: pressing, press, membrane, perforated insert, grape pulp, ridges, body, evacuated container.

 

REFERENCES

1. Balanov P. E., Smotraeva I. V. Promyshlennoe proizvodstvo vina: uchebnoe posobie. Ch. 1. SPb. : Universitet ITMO, 2016. 90 p.

2. Pressovanie mezgi // Obrabotka i pressovanie mezgi [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://nomnoms.info/obrabotka-i-pressovanie-mezgi/

3. Pressovanie mezgi [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://vinocenter.ru/vina-moldavii/pressovanie-mezgi.html

4. Della-toffola [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://della-toffola.ru/vinodelie/pressy/

5. Geoingeering [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://geo-eng.ru/items/pervichnoe-vinodelie/pressy

6. Nazarov I. V., Tolstouhova T. N. Sovershenstvovanie konstrukcii membrannogo pressa // Nauchnoe obozrenie. 2017. № 22. pp. 43-45.

7. Pat. 2616846 Rossijskaya Federaciya, MPK A 23 N 1/00. Press / Nazarov I. V., Tolstouhova T. N., Krasnov I. N. ; zayavitel' i patentoobladatel' FGBOU VPO DGAU. № 2015143573 ; zayavl. 12.10.2015 ; opubl. 18.04.2017, Byul. № 11.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-42-47

УДК 631.544 

 

MIKHAIL L. LAZARENKO, Postgraduate

LEONID M. LAZARENKO, Ph. D. of Phys.-Mat. Sciences, Associate Professor

ALEXANDR I. SABLIN, Ph. D. of Phys.-Mat. Sciences, Associate Professor

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 

ROOT METHOD OF SETTING UP TEMPERATURE CONTROLLERS IN THE GREENHOUSE FARM

Abstract. The problem of optimal adjustment of controllers controlling production processes in agriculture, in particular, the temperature regime in greenhouse complexes is a difficult task, since there is always an uncertainty in the spectral composition of external influences, for example, a change in temperature of both the external and internal environment. Traditionally, such a synthesis of automatic control systems is based on solving integro-differential equations in ordinary derivatives. In the transition from temporal dependencies using the Laplace transform to the transfer functions of argument s, the synthesis of a conventional PID controller involves solving a system of equations with four unknowns under the condition of the required stability and degree of system oscillation (speed) the germination chamber and the PID controller. Calculation of controller settings with a more complex structure, for example, containing fractional derivatives to increase performance and reduce interference in feedback systems, involves solving the system of equations from the argument s with six or more unknowns. In the systems of numerical calculation, for example, MathCAD, such problems are solved by the transition from the Laplace transform to the Fury transform, which makes it possible to implement simulation modeling by the frequency response characteristics. In the proposed work, we consider the root method for the synthesis of closed systems containing controllers of the form PID, where ? and ? always less than one. This technique allows in systems of symbolic calculation, such as, Sympy-Python, Maple, etc. get the absolute damping factor, the constant settings of the controller for different values of the variabledegree of oscillation of the system.

Key words: control system, quality control, PID controller, fractional derivatives, settings of regulators with fractional derivatives, improvement of control laws.

 

REFERENCES

1. Leonard A. Otnositel'noe dempfirovanie, kak kriterij ustojchivosti, a takzhe, kak sredstvo dlya nahozhdeniya kornej polinoma Gurvica // Avtomaticheskoe regulirovanie: Materialy konferencii v Krenfil'de. M. : Izd-vo inostrannoj literatury, 1954.

2. Lazarenko M. L. Metod rascheta parametrov nastrojki regulyatora s drobnymi proizvodnymi v zakone upravleniya // Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki. 2014. № 1. pp. 249-251.

3. Pat. 2589163 Rossijskaya Federaciya, MPK A01G9/24. Sposob avtomaticheskogo regulirovaniya temperaturnym rezhimom teplicy / Lazarenko M. L., Lazarenko L. M., Sudnik Yu. A. ; zayavitel' i patentoobladatel' Lazarenko M. L. № 2014140224/13 ; zayavl. 06.10.2014 ; opubl. 10.07.2016, Byul. № 19.

4. Lazarenko M. L., Lazarenko L. M. Realizaciya sistemy regulirovaniya temperatury i monitoringa parametrov mikroklimata v klimaticheskoj kamere prorashchivaniya // Mezhdunarodnyj tekhnikoekonomicheskij zhurnal 2018. № 3. pp. 33-38.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-48-54

УДК 621.315.004.28-132 

 

VLADIMIR Yu. KABASHOV, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

LYUDMILA P. ANDRIANOVA, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

Bashkir State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Ufa

 

IMPROVING THE OPERATIONAL RELIABILITY OF OVERHEAD LINES OF 10 (6) KV AT INFLUENCE OF UNFAVORABLE CLIMATIC FACTORS

Abstract. The article shows that the majority of emergency shut-offs of 10 (6) kV overhead power lines under the influence of wind and ice are due to dangerous rapprochement, clashing and wire breaks, design features of these lines are given, which explain their high damageability in comparison with overhead transmission lines of 35 kV and above. Clashing and dangerous rapprochement of wires that cause emergency shut-offs of lines often occur in spans with disadjustment sag of the wires from 20 to 60 percent. The conducted experimental studies have shown that the distances between the wires with their pendulum oscillations decrease with increasing of disadjustment sag of the wires, wind speed and also with a decrease in  the span length. At wind speeds in the range of 17.5…18.6 meters per second, the distance between the wires at the maximum rapprochement in 50 meters span is 1.28-1.36 times less than in a of 100 meters span. It is shown that the minimum distances between wires are observed at wind directions to the axis of the span within 40…90°. It has been experimentally established that the ice coating on the wires lead to a reduction in the distances between the wires by 26…34 %. A new design of the spacer is proposed, which prevents dangerous wires rapprochement during swaying under the influence of wind and low-frequency oscillations such as "galloping". 

Key words:  overhead power line, emergency shut-off, span, sag of wire, rapprochement and clashing of wires, wind, ice.

 

REFERENCES

1. Hlopova A. V. Analiz prichin obryvov faznyh provodov vozdushnyh linij napryazheniem 6-10 kV // Bezopasnost' zhiznedeyatel'nosti. 2018. № 4 (208). pp. 38-43.

2. Kabashov V. Yu., Andrianova L. P., Hajrislamov D. S. Prichiny avarijnyh otklyuchenij sel'skih vozdushnyh linij elektroperedachi napryazheniem 10 (6) kV // Recenziruemyj nauchnyj zhurnal "Tendencii razvitiya nauki i obrazovaniya". Mart 2019 g. № 48, Ch. 7. Izd. NIC «L-ZHurnal», 2019. pp. 40-44.

3. Kabashov V. Yu. Analiz povrezhdaemosti VL 6-10 kV v usloviyah vozdejstviya neblagopriyatnyh klimaticheskih faktorov // News of science and education. 2017. T. 8. № 2. pp. 3-7.

4. Kabashov V. Yu. Povyshenie nadezhnosti sel'skih vozdushnyh linij elektroperedachi 10 (6) kV v usloviyah vozdejstviya vetrovyh i gololednyh nagruzok: avtoref. dis. doktora tekhn. nauk: 05.20.02 / Kabashov Vladimir YUr'evich. M., 2011. 35 p.

5. Kabashov V. Yu. Povyshenie nadezhnosti krepleniya provoda k shtyrevomu izolyatoru na VL 6-10 kV // Elektrifikaciya sel'skogo hozyajstva: mezhvuzovskij nauchnyj sbornik / Bashkirskij GAU. Ufa, 2008. Vyp. 5. pp. 29-32.

6. Kabashov V. Yu. Povyshenie nadezhnosti sel'skih vozdushnyh linij elektroperedachi 10 (6) kV   v usloviyah vozdejstviya vetrovyh i gololednyh nagruzok: dis. doktora tekhn. nauk : 05.20.02 / Kabashov Vladimir Yur'evich. M., 2011. 356 p.

7. Kabashov V. Yu. Vliyanie parametrov proleta na avarijnye otklyucheniya sel'skih VL 6-10 kV pri vozdejstvii vetra // Elektrotekhnicheskie i informacionnye kompleksy i sistemy. 2014. № 4. T. 10. pp. 52-57.

8. Kabashov V. Yu. Issledovanie vozmozhnyh sblizhenij provodov sel'skih VL 6-10 kV pri ih mayatnikovyh kolebaniyah pod dejstviem vetra // Nauchno-metodicheskij elektronnyj zhurnal «Koncept». 2016. T. 15 [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://e-koncept.ru/2016/96184.htm

9. Kabashov V. Yu. Rezul'taty eksperimental'nyh issledovanij sblizhenij provodov VL 6-10 kV pri vozdejstvii vetra // Rossijskij elektronnyj nauchnyj zhurnal. 2014. № 1 [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL:  http://journal.bsau.ru/directions/05-00-00-technical-sciences/index.php?ELEMENTID=317

10. Kabashov V. Yu. Povyshenie nadezhnosti sel'skih vozdushnyh linij 6-10 kV v usloviyah vozdejstviya vetrovyh nagruzok: monografiya. Ufa : Zdravoohranenie Bashkortostana, 2009. 140 p.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-55-62

УДК 631.22:628.8:636.5 

 

VLADIMIR V. SHMIGEL, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

ARTEM S. UGLOVSKIY, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences

VALERIY V. EGORICHEV, Graduate-student

Yaroslavl State Agricultural Academy, Russian Federation, Yaroslavl

 

MANAGEMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGE SOURCE SYSTEM FOR OZONE GENERATION IN INCUBATOR

Abstract. A high voltage high frequency power supply for ozone generation is presented. Ozone generation is intended for use in ozonation installations for disinfection and stimulation of eggs of poultry and for disinfection of water. The proposed scheme of a high-voltage power supply consisting of a single-phase inverter of a full bridge for controlling the output power, a push-pull current inverter (driver) and a control circuit is described and analyzed. This power supply uses a line transformer and a PIC microcontroller used to control the functions of the ozone generator with a dielectric barrier. The proposed ozone generator allows the generation of ozone with high efficiency. An inverter operating on the basis of a control system has a simple structure and a range of variation of the operating frequency to obtain the optimal value. It is proposed to measure the concentration of ozone in the incubator using an Alphasense sensor model OX-B421. The ozone sensor provides a low noise level and a high resolution output signal through the electrodes. A formula is derived for determining the concentration of ozone in the generator using the parameters of this sensor. This formula for the ozone concentration can be applied on the operator panel. One of the factors affecting the efficiency of ozone synthesis is an increase in ozone concentration as the ozone-air mixture passes along the generator. The article also presents a formula that determines the efficiency of ozone generation using reduced electric field strength.

Key words: electric field, ozonation installation, ozone generation, dielectric barrier, driver, high voltage source, horizontal transformer.

 

REFERENCES

1. Kogelschatz U. Dielectric-barrier discharges: Their history, discharge physics, and industrial applications // Plasma Chem. Plasma Process., vol. 23, no. 1, Mar. 2003. pp. 1-46.

2. Alonso J. M., Garcia J., Calleja A. J., Ribas J., Cardesin J. Analysis, design, and experimentation of a high-voltage power supply for ozone generation based on current-fed parallel-resonant pushpull inverter // IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 5, Sep. 2005. pp. 1364-1372.

3. Optimization of electrical technologies in agriculture: collection of scientific papers on the materials of the International scientific-practical conference / ed. L. V. Voronova / Yaroslavl state agricultural Academy. Yaroslavl : Yaroslavl state agricultural Academy doctor of, 2016. 120 p.

4. Kuffel E., Zaengl W. S., Kuffel J. Electrical breakdown in gases // in High Voltage Engineering: Fundamentals, 2nd ed., Newnes, 2000, pp. 281-366.

5. Kitayama J., Kuzumoto M. "Theoretical and experimental study on ozone generation characteristics of an oxygen-fed ozone generator in silent discharge // J. Phy. D: Appl. Phys., vol. 30, 1997, p. 2453.

6. Eliasson B., Hirth M., Kogelschatz U. Ozone synthesis from oxygen in dielectric barrier discharges // J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., vol. 20, no. 11, 1987, pp. 1421-1437.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-63-70

УДК 621.436.001.57 

 

OLEG P. ANDREEV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Professor

OLEG N. SLEPTSOV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 

MODELING OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION PROCESS AS AN OBJECT OF SPEED CONTROL

Abstract. One of the most important parameters of internal combustion engines is the speed of the crankshaft, which characterizes the high-speed operation of power plants for various purposes. The most stringent requirements for the constancy of the speed of the internal combustion engine are imposed in electric units having in the design of the fuel system speed controllers (in particular, in diesel generator sets), producing alternating electric current. This ensures the requirements of regulatory documents (GOST or TU) to the frequency produced by the diesel generator set of alternating current. In transport engines, it is also important to maintain the required engine speed. This provides a constant driving speed of the vehicle and prevents the output of the engine on the modes with unacceptably high frequency of rotation of the crankshaft. Therefore, it is very important to accurately maintain the high-speed operation of the diesel regardless of external loads. The article offers mathematical modeling of the working process of diesel as part of the generator set. Certain fundamental differential equations the linear mathematical process model in the impingement load on the generator, certain structural diagram of the engine as a dynamic structure, certain factors affecting the processes of intake and exhaust, predelany transfer function of the process.

Key words: the diesel engine working process, diesel generator, rotation speed, linear model, mathematical modelling.

 

REFERENCES

1. Grekhov L. V., Ivashchenko N. A., Markov V. A. Toplivnaya apparatura i sistemy upravleniya dizelej: uchebnik dlya vuzov. M. : Legion-Avtodata, 2005. p. 344.

2. Krutov V. I. Avtomaticheskoe regulirovanie i upravlenie dvigatelej vnutrennego sgoraniya. M. : Mashinostroenie, 1989. 416 p.

3. Metody klassicheskoj i sovremennoj teorii avtomaticheskogo upravleniya: uchebnik v 5-i tomah / A. I. Barkin, E. M. Voronov, V. G. Kon'kov i dr. / Pod red. K. A. Pupkova, N. D. Egupova. M. : Izd-vo MGTU imeni N. E. Baumana, 2004. Tom 1: Matematicheskie modeli, dinamicheskie harakteristiki i analiz sistem avtomaticheskogo upravleniya. 656 p.

4. Metody klassicheskoj i sovremennoj teorii avtomaticheskogo upravleniya: Uchebnik v 5-i tomah / A. I. Barkin, A. V. Zajcev, S. V. Kanushkin i dr. / Pod red. K. A. Pupkova, N. D. Egupova. M. : Izd-vo MGTU imeni N. E. Baumana, 2004. Tom 5: Metody sovremennoj teorii avtomaticheskogo upravleniya. 784 p.

5. Pozdnyakov E. F. Analiz effektivnosti ispol'zovaniya regulyatora chastoty vrashcheniya s posledovatel'no vklyuchennymi korrektiruyushchimi zven'yami v dizel'nom dvigatele dizel'generatornoj ustanovki: dis. kand. tekhn. nauk / Pozdnyakov Yevgeniy Fedorovich. M. : MGTU imeni N. E. Baumana, 2009. 150 p.

6. Bloh Z. Sh. Dinamika linejnyh sistem avtomaticheskogo regulirovaniiya. M. : Gostekhteorizdat, 1952. 491 p.

7. Krutov V. I., Kuznecov A. G., Shatrov V. I. Analiz metodov sostavleniya matematicheskoj modeli dizelya s gazoturbinnym nadduvom // Izvestiya vuzov. Mashinostroenie. 1994. № 10-12. pp. 62-69.

8. Hajmin Yu. F. Matematicheskaya model' SAR skorosti traktornogo dizelya s dvojnym korrektirovaniem toplivopodachi // Dvigatelestroenie. 1980. № 3. pp. 20-24.

9. Krutov V. I., Kuz'mik P. K. Raschet perekhodnyh processov sistemy avtomaticheskogo regulirovaniya dizelya s turbonadduvom s uchetom nelinejnyh harakteristik // Izvestiya vuzov. Mashinostroenie. 1969. № 10. pp. 102-108.

10 Popov E. P. Teoriya nelinejnyh sistem avtomaticheskogo regulirovaniya i upravleniya. M. : Nauka, 1988. 256 p.

11. Krutov V. I. Analiz raboty sistem avtomaticheskogo regulirovaniya. M. : Mashgiz, 1961. 180 p.

12. Krutov V. I. Perekhodnye processy sistem avtomaticheskogo regulirovaniya. M. : Mashinostroenie, 1965. 252 p.

13. Arhangel'skij V. M., Zlotin G. N. Rabota avtotraktornyh dvigatelej na neustanovivshihsya rezhimah. M. : Mashinostroenie, 1979. 215 p.

14. Markov V. A. Ocenka ustojchivosti i kachestva raboty sistemy avtomaticheskogo upravleniya toplivopodachej transportnogo dizelya // Vestnik MGTU. Mashinostroenie. 1996. № 3. pp. 98-117.

15. Issledovanie dinamicheskih harakteristik avtomobil'nyh dizelej / N. I. Verevkin, L. I. Kreps, S. A. Lyapin i dr. // Dvigatelestroenie. 1988. № 8. pp. 29-31.

16. Krutov V. I. Dvigatel' vnutrennego sgoraniya kak reguliruemyj ob"ekt. M. : Mashinostroenie, 1978. 472 p.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-71-76

УДК 621.436.001.57 

 

LYUBOV' I. KOROL’KOVA, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

South Ural State University (National Research University), Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk

NEMATULLA MASHRABOV, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

South Ural State Agrarian

University Institute of Agroengineering, Russian Federation, Troitsk

 

NON-PARAMETRIC EVALUATION OF MEAN LIFE BY CENSORED DATA

Abstract. In the case of nonparametric estimation of the distribution function from a censored data, the function often does not reach unity. The latter means that the mean life cannot be calculated as the mathematical expectation of the developments to the limit state. Therefore, with a non-parametric approach, estimating the mean life is a separate task. The mean life estimation known in the literature, based on the fact that all non-failing products are assigned the maximum value of operating time to the limiting state in the sample, is often understated. Therefore, the authors proposed two estimates of the mean life, additionally using quantiles of the distribution function estimate. The general method for mean life estimation is based on the set of well-known non-parametric distribution function estimations, the criteria introduced earlier by the authors for distinguishing the censored data and three estimates of the mean life of the censored sample. As a result, on the basis of simulation modeling, the ranges of criteria for distinguishability and the corresponding sets of the distribution function estimates and the mean life were obtained. Cases are indicated when it is impossible to estimate the average value with an accuracy not exceeding 20 %. The results of testing the method according to the performance tests of agricultural machinery are given. An error not exceeding 9 % makes it possible to estimate the mean life for an earlier period, when not all products have reached the limit state.

Key words: censored data, nonparametric estimation, criteria for distinguishability, mean life.

 

REFERENCES

1. Truxillo C. Maximum likelihood parameter estimation with incomplete data // SUGI 30 Proceedings. 2015.

2. Abramovich M. S., Mitskevich M. N., Pyzhik N. N. Algoritmicheskoye i programmnoye оbespecheniye otsenivaniya pokazateley nadezhnosti avtotransportnykh sredstv po tsenzurirovannym vyborkam // Informatika. 2010. №2(26).

3. Gorshkov V. A., Krutovertsev A. I. Analiz nadezhnosti ob"yektov povyshennogo tekhnogennogo riska po ogranichennoy informatsii na osnove tsenzurirovannykh vyborok // Nauchnyye i obrazovatel'nyye problemy grazhdanskoy zashchity. 2015. №4. pp. 77-84.

4. Rusin A .Yu., Baryshev Ya. V. Imitatsionnoye modelirovaniye otkazov s tsel'yu povysheniya effektivnosti sistemy tekhnicheskogo obsluzhivaniya i remonta // Programmnyye produkty, sistemy i algoritmy. 2016. № 4. DOI: 10.15827/2311-6749.16.4.5

5. Chimitova Ye. V., Semonova M. A. Proverka adekvatnosti parametricheskikh regressionnykh modeley nadezhnosti po usechennym sleva i tsenzurirovannym sprava dannym // DOKLADY AN VSH RF. 2015. №1. pp. 104-120.

6. Agamirov L. V., Agamirov V. L, Vestyak V. A. Statisticheskiy analiz rezul'tatov ispytaniy izdeliy aviatsionnoy tekhniki v usloviyakh sluchaynogo tsenzurirovaniya // Programmnyye produkty i sistemy. 2017. Т. 30. №1. pp. 124-129.

7. Il Yong Na, Woojin Chang Multi-system reliability trend analysis model using incomplete data with application to tank maintenance // Quality and Reliability Engineering International. 2017. Vol. 33(8). pp. 2385-2395.

8. Shilovskiy V. N., Pitukhin A. V., Kostyukevich V. M. Raschot resursa i kolichestva zapasnykh chastey po rezul'tatam nezavershonnykh ispytaniy // Resources and Technology. 2017. № 14(2). pp.  1-11.  DOI: 10.15393/j2.art.2017.3701

9. Kaplan E. L., Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations // J. of the American Statistical Association. 1958. Vol. 53. pp. 457-481.

10. Johnson L. G. Failure of components // Automobile Engineer. March. 1966. Is. 3. pp. 19-30.

11. Nelson W.B. Hazard plotting for incomplete failure data // J. of Quality Technology. 1969. Vol. 1. pp. 27-52.

12. Hutson A. D. Nonparametric rank based estimation of bivariate densities given censored data conditional on marginal probabilities // Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications. 2016. 3:9. DOI: 10.1186/s40488-016-0047-y

13. Korol'kova L. I., Mashrabov N. Neparametricheskoye otsenivaniye 80-protsentnogo resursa po mnogokratno tsenzurirovannoy vyborke // Mezhdunarodnyy tekhniko-ekonomicheskiy zhurnal. 2018. № 4. pp. 77-82.

14. Korol'kov I. V., Korol'kova L. I. Otsenivaniye funktsii raspredeleniya narabotki do otkaza po tsenzurirovannoy vyborke // Obozreniye prikl. i promyshl. matem. 2004. T. 11. Vol. 4. pp. 614-615.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-77-83

УДК 631.3-235.018.2 

 

STANISLAV N. SHUKHANOV, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences

Irkutsk State Agricultural University named after A. A. Ezhevsky, Russian Federation, Irkutsk

VITALY V. SKUTELNIK, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences

Irkutsk National Research Technical University, Russian Federation, Irkutsk

OLEG L. MALOMYZHEV, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences

Irkutsk State Transport University, Russian Federation, Irkutsk

 

TECHNIQUE OF CARRYING OUT HEAT TESTS OF UNITS OF TRANSMISSION OF THE AUTOTRACTOR MACHINERY OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

Abstract. In order to modernize the transmission units of autotractor equipment, it is necessary to solve the problem of creating a methodology for conducting their thermal tests. The results of which are essential in the design of transmission units and mechanisms. One of the main tasks of experimental studies of thermal conditions is the verification and refinement of the assumptions and thermal physical characteristics (TFC) adopted in the design. The basic test mode is performed as follows: at a given gear, the unit enters into operation with 100 % engine load at minimum speed and maintains in this mode until the end of the transition process based on oil temperature, then gradually increases to maximum speed and again maintain them at the end of the transition process. After that, the load is removed and the unit returns to its original state. The number of basic modes of thermal testing must match the number of modes of operation of the unit. In the main modes, as a result of measurements and their processing, all required TFC estimates are obtained. When additional modes are carried out, the performance characteristics of heat generation and temperatures are evaluated and a mathematical model is checked, the parameters of which were determined when conducting thermal tests on the main modes. The given method of thermal testing allows to obtain the effective values of all the main characteristics of thermal processes and the data necessary to predict the temperature mode of the unit.

Key words: technique of carrying out tests, thermal conditions, transmission units, agroindustrial complex, automotive equipment.

 

REFERENCES

1. Shuhanov S. N. Interaction elements of particles of grain lots with air during the work of tape thrower // Agrarian Scientific Journal. 2015. Vol. 12. pp. 58-59.

2. Altukhov I. V., Ochirov V. D., Fedotov V. A. Experimental IK - installation for drying of fruits and vegetables // The Messenger of the Irkutsk GSHA. 2017. No 81-2. pp. 90-96.

3. Butenko A. F., Asaturyan A. V. To justification of efficiency of use of the combined tape thrower of grain // The International technical and economic magazine. 2018. No 1. pp. 80-86.

4. Shukhanov S. N. An advanced way of cultivation of root crops in a sukhostepny zone // News of the Orenburg GAU. 2018. No 1 (69). pp. 112-113.

5. Shukhanov S. N. Analytical research of process of dispensing of peat bunker batcher // Agrarian scientific magazine. 2018. No 3. pp. 56-57.

6. Shukhanov S. N. Increase in productivity of crops on peat soils by improvement of efficiency of their loosening // The Messenger of the Kursk GSHA. 2018. No 8. pp. 181-183.

7. Shukhanov S. N. Elements of interaction of tooth gearings of mechanical transmissions of the autotractor machinery / S. N. Shukhanov, A. Yu. Kuzkin, V. V. Skutelnik, O. L. Malomyzhev // News of the Orenburg GAU. 2018. No 1 (69). pp. 107-109.

 

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DOI: 10.34286/1995-4646-2019-66-3-84-89

УДК 631.173

 

VALENTIN V. POPOV, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

NATALYA A. MOCHUNOVA, Ph. D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

MARTIK A. KARAPETIAN, Advanced Doctor in Engineering Sciences, Professor

Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, Russian Federation, Moscow

 
FORMATION OF OPTIMIZATION METHODS AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT IN MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF ICC

Abstract. The results of practical data on the development of the failure of the main parts and assemblies that determine the reliability of cars and tractors operating in agriculture are presented. Based on these data, theoretical dependences that allow calculating the amount of repair work in the design and reconstruction of repair enterprises are obtained. Equations are obtained for calculating the scope of work in the maintenance of automobiles and tractors necessary for the organization of technologically new repair enterprises. The importance for maintenance and repair, a methodology for calculating the main indicators of repair enterprises is proposed. Of particular importance should be given to the difficulty of obtaining technical conditions for supplying heat to the repair facility, providing electric energy necessary for the operation of the facility, as well as the cost of building roads connecting the repair facilities and infrastructure facilities in the region. It is proved that these factors are practically not taken into account when planning and locating enterprises, and they very often prevail in importance over the size of the volumes of repair and maintenance of tractors and cars and can lead to a decrease in the company's profitability when putting it into operation. Other important factors are not only the number of cars and tractors in the region, but their technical characteristics. The actual need for maintenance of tractors and cars is important.

Key words: maintenance, industrial enterprises, evaluation criteria, the effectiveness of the repair company. repair, failure, operating time, methods, reconstruction, analysis, optimization of production processes, gradual and sudden failures.

 

REFRENCES

1. Mochunova N. A., Karapetyan M. A. Optimizaciya processa razmeshcheniya remontnyh predpriyatij i STO sel'skohozyajstvennoj tekhniki // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchnyj zhurnal. 2017. № 6. pp. 70-74.

2. Mochunova N. A.,  Karapetyan  M. A.  Voprosy  optimizacii proizvodstvennyh processov v remontnom proizvodstve sel'skohozyajstvennogo parka // Mezhdunarodnyj tekhnikoekonomicheskij zhurnal. 2017. № 6. pp. 101-103.

3. Toropynin S. I., Terskih S. A., Zhuravlev S. Yu. Proektirovanie sel'skohozyajstvennyh remontnoobsluzhivayushchih predpriyatij. M. : Koloss, 2002. 56 p.

4. Mochunova N. A., Karapetyan M. A. Optimizaciya processa razmeshcheniya remontnyh predpriyatij i STO sel'skohozyajstvennoj tekhniki // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchnyj zhurnal. 2017. № 6. pp. 70-74.

5. Yudin M. I., Stukopin N. I., Shiraj O. G. Organizaciya remontno-obsluzhivayushchego proizvodstva v sel'skom hozyajstve. Krasnodar : Izd-vo KGAU, 2002. 944 p.

6. Urubkov A. R., Fedotov I. V. Metody i modeli optimizacii upravlencheskih reshenij: uchebnoe posobie. M. : ID Delo RANHiGS, 2012. 240 p.

7. Zangiev A. A. [i dr.] Ekspluataciya mashinno-traktornogo parka. M. : Koloss, 2008. 320 p.

 

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