THE INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL-ECONOMIC
JOURNAL

Contents

PROCESSES AND MACHINES OF AGROENGINEERING SYSTEMS

 

Abdulmazhidov Kh. A., Matveev A. S.

Updated strength calculations working bodies of machines of environmental engineering in the system INVENTOR PRO

 
7

Butuzov A. E., Gasparyan I. N., Dyykanova M. E., Ivashova O. N.

The impact of sheltering on the efficiency of production of early potatoes in the Moscow region

 
15

Rakhimov R. S., Ahmed’yanova E. N., Rednikov S. N.

Improving the design of regenerative heat exchanger

 
21

Navrotskaya L. V., Puzarin A. V., Stushkina N. A.

The method of experimental determination of the bidirectional Reflectivity of the mirrors of solar power installations

 
27

Lazarenko M. L., Lazarenko L. M.

Implementation of the temperature control controller and monitoring of the microclimate with fractional derivatives in the control law In the germination chamber

 
33

Dolgova L. A., Salmin V. V.

Method and stand for determining the resource of motor oil in the engine

 
39

Korol’kova L. I., Mashrabov N., Syus’kina Y. L.

The calculation of probability of failure-free operation for systems with individual and group inventory

 
50

Bykova E. V.

Equipment for application of perfluorinated protective coatings to improve storability of agricultural machinery

 
58

Pchelkin A. A.

Statistics measuring and monitoring processes in the sphere of repair and maintenance of farm equipment

 
65

Orlov B. N., Karapetyan M. A., Matveev A. S.

The impact of the industrialization of agriculture on the structural reliability of agri-business machines

 
72

 

 

ENERGY

 

Nasyrov O. M., Klimanov V. P.

Evaluation of the efficiency of the energy saving project of modernization of municipal unitary enterprises

 
78

Matveev A. I., Andreev S. A.

Investigation of energy indicators of the condensator discharge process for variable load

 
85

Rabishina L. A., Vasil’yev R. I., Davletshin D. N.

Method of calculation of active power losses in a four-wire system of self-supporting insulated wires

 
93

Andreev S. A., Kabdin N. E.

Study of devices of protection of asynchronous motors against switching overvoltages

 
100

Kikot’ E. A.

The fuel efficiency in the cities of the russian federation (on materials of heat-supply schemes)

 
107

Gazizov F. N.

Analysis of prospects of transition to a closed hot water system

 
115

 

 

SAFETY OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES

 

Fomin A. V., Shahmanov F. F.

Conceptual model of application of risk-oriented approach in implementation of surveillance for compliance with fire safety requirements at automobile gas filling stations

 
123

Fomin A. V., Shahmanov F. F.

The method of categorization of vehicle gas filling stations to the level of risk

 
130

 

 

ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES INDEXED IN AGRIS

 

Abstracts

135

 

 

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PROCESSES AND MACHINES

 

OF AGROENGINEERING SYSTEMS

 

 

 

УДК 631.311.5.02

Kh. A. ABDULMAZHIDOV, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

A. S. MATVEEV, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education  "Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy  named after K. A. Timiryazev", Russian Federation, Moscow

 

UPDATED STRENGTH CALCULATIONS WORKING BODIES OF MACHINES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING IN THE SYSTEM INVENTOR PRO

Abstract. The purpose of the work is to determine the design features of the working bodies of machines of environmental engineering, their strength and refined strength calculations, preparation of technical documentation in the Inventor Pro system. The article uses the methods of experimental and theoretical level: solid-state modeling, theoretical experiment with stress analysis and refined strength calculation and analysis of research results. When creating new machine parts it is necessary to carry out strength calculations. At present, the finite element method (FEM) is widely used in strength calculations of parts. Described methodology of the strength calculation, finite element method, which includes: creation of details, the job material, the determination of the points of support, the assignment of loads and moments, obtaining the grid (i.e., a breakdown of the details on finite elements) calculation. The main component of the work is the presented method of the updated strength calculation. The results of calculations are given by the program in the form of icons and tables with a set of calculated data, the main of which are considered to be the margin of safety, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, stress and strain. It was found that the safety margin for the developed channel cleaner bucket is within acceptable limits. The refined strength calculations with the determination of the dependence of the safety margin on the size of the finite elements are carried out. It is confirmed that with the increase in the calculations of the finite element sizes the safety margin increases.

Key words: three-dimensional drawing, strength calculation, a refined strength analysis, technical documentation, allowable stresses, finite element method, factor of safety, working bodies of dredgers, machines of environmental engineering.

 

REFERENCES

1. Levkovets L. B., Tarasenkov P. V. Autodesk Inventor. Bazovyy kurs na primerakh. SPb. : BKhV –  Peterburg, 2013. 400 s.

2. Apatenko A. S. Sovremennye tendentsii razvitiya tekhnicheskogo potentsiala melioratsii zemel' // Vestnik FGOU VPO «Moskovskiy gosudarstvennyy agroinzhenernyy universitet imeni V. P. Goryachkina». 2013. № 2(58). S. 23–25.

3. Korneev A. Yu., Martynova N. B. Pluzhnyy rabochiy organ dlya stroitel'stva meliorativnykh  kanalov poluellipticheskogo profilya v zone osusheniya // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU im. V. P.  Goryachkina. 2017. № 2(78). S. 26–29.

4. Orlov B. N., Karapetyan M. A., Abdulmazhidov Kh. A. Issledovanie iznosa rabochikh elementov mashin i tekhnologicheskogo oborudovaniya // Traktory i sel'khozmashiny. Ezhemesyachnyy nauchno-prakticheskiy zhurnal. 2014. Vypusk № 2. S. 36–38.

5. Abdulmazhidov Kh. A., Mochunova N. A. Analiticheskaya model' sistemy upravleniya skorost'yu dvizheniya kovsha kanaloochistitel'noy mashiny // Stroitel'nye i dorozhnye mashiny.  Ezhemesyachnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy i proizvodstvennyy zhurnal. 2014. Vypusk № 9. 13 s.

6. Abdulmazhidov Kh. A., Karapetyan M. A. Teoreticheskoe issledovanie dinamiki rabochego organa kanaloochistitelya RR-303 // Prirodoobustroystvo. Nauchno-prakticheskiy zhurnal. 2015.  Vypusk № 2. S. 78–81.

7. Trevis Dzhons, Deniel T. Banakh, Alan Dzh. Kalameyya Autodesk Inventor Essentials Plus. M. :  Lori, 2012.

8. Tom Trembli Autodesk Inventor 2013 i Inventor LT 2013: Autodesk Official Training Guide. M. :  DMK Press, 2012.

9. Levkovets L. B. Autodesk Inventor. SPb. : BKhV-Peterburg, 2008.

10. Orlov B. N., Bondareva G. I. Sovremennye sposoby usileniya konstruktsiy kabin avtotransporta i traktorov // Vestnik FGOU VPO «Moskovskiy gosudarstvennyy agroinzhenernyy universitet imeni V. P. Goryachkina». 2014. № 2(62). S. 35.

11. Pat. 2500858 Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, MPK 51 E 02 F 3/48. Kovsh kanaloochistitelya / Abdulmazhidov Kh. A.; patentoobladatel' Federal'noe gosudarstvennoe byudzhetnoe obrazovatel'noe uchrezhdenie vysshego professional'nogo obrazovaniya «Moskovskiy gosudarstvennyy universitet prirodoobustroystva». № 2012124558/03; zayavl. 15.06.2012; opubl. 10.12.2013, Byul. № 34.

12. Abdulmazhidov Kh. A., Matveev A. S. Kompleksnoe proektirovanie i prochnostnye raschety konstruktsiy mashin prirodoobustroystva v sisteme Inventor Pro // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU imeni V. P. Goryachkina. 2016. № 2 (72). S. 40–46.

 

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УДК 631.22:628.81 

R. S. RAKHIMOV, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor

E. N. AHMED’YANOVA, Graduate student

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "South Ural State Agrarian University", Russian Federation, Troitsk

S. N. REDNIKOV, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "South Ural State University (National Research University)", Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk

 

IMPROVING THE DESIGN OF REGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER

Abstract. One of the ways to improve the thermal efficiency of modern heating systems is the use of heat from low-potential sources. These systems are relevant in the housing and communal services, as they allow for the disposal of heat lost with the exhaust air in the ventilation systems. Heat exchangers (regenerative heat exchangers) are effective when used in drying plants for various purposes, used both in agriculture and in industry. In rooms where cattle, sheep, pigs, birds or other animals are located, the use of regenerative heat exchangers is advisable. Also successfully use the heat exchanger for drying grain, potatoes, beets, corn, sunflower and any other culture, it is possible to use it for storage of various crops. There is a demand for low-potential heat recovery systems in the energy sector, where the problem  of heat carried away with the exhaust gases is particularly acute. For the use of secondary energy resources are increasingly used regenerative heat exchangers of various designs, both continuous and periodic, but the existing heat exchangers have a number of drawbacks, such as high cost and high mass, frequency of operation, the possibility of condensation, etc.

Key words: heat exchanger, heat exchanger, regeneration, heat, cell nozzle, fan.

 

REFERENCES

1. Vasil'ev L. L., Kiselev V. G., Matveev Yu. N., Molodkin F. F. Teploobmenniki-utilizatory na teplovykh trubakh / Pod red. L. I. Kolykhana. Minsk : Nauka i tekhnika, 1987. 200 s.

2. Minin V. E. Vozdukhonagrevateli dlya sistem ventilyatsii i konditsionirovaniya vozdukha. M. : Stroyizdat, 1976. 199 s.

3. Polyakov V. V., Skvortsov L. S. Nasosy i ventilyatory: Uchebnik dlya vuzov. M. : Stroyizdat. 1990. 336 s.

4. Cherkasskiy V. M. Nasosy, ventilyatory, kompressory: Uchebnik dlya teploenergeticheskikh spetsial'nostey vuzov. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. M. : Energoatomizdat, 1984. 416 s.

5. Pat. 2614428 Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, MPK 51 F 28 D 17/04, F 23 L 15/02. Regenerativnyy vozdukhonagrevatel' / Akhmed'yanova E. N., Rednikov S. N., Ptashkina-Girinа O. S.; patentoobladatel' Federal'noe gosudarstvennoe byudzhetnoe obrazovatel'noe uchrezhdenie vysshego obrazovaniya «Yuzhno-Ural'skiy gosudarstvennyy agrarnyy universitet» Institut agroinzhenerii. № 2015143954; zayavl. 13.10.2015 ; opubl. 28.03.2017, Byul. № 10.

6. Akhmed'yanova E. N. Teoreticheskie issledovaniya protsessa sushki // Sbornik Materialov 68-y nauchnoy konferentsii [Elektronnyy resurs] / Nauka. YuUrGU, 2016. S. 881–887.

7. Akhmed'yanova E. N., Rednikov S. N. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie protsessa sushki drevesnykh otkhodov // Izvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. 2016. T. 18. № (2). S. 382–385.

8. Rednikov S. N., Akhmed'yanova E. N. Metody issledovaniya svoystv uglevodorodov pri davleniyakh svyshe 150 MPA // Sbornik «Fundamental'nye i prikladnye problemy nauki»: materialy VII Mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma. T. 3 / RAN, Mezhregional'nyy sovet po nauke i tekhnologiyam (MSNT). M. : RAN, 2012. S. 49–54.

 

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УДК 620.91+621.472 

L. V. NAVROTSKAYA, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

A. V. PUZARIN, Senior lecturer

N. A. STUSHKINA, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K. A. Timiryazev", Russian Federation, Moscow

 

THE METHOD OF EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE BIDIRECTIONAL REFLECTIVITY OF THE MIRRORS OF SOLAR POWER INSTALLATIONS

Abstract. The technique and experimental setup for the study of bidirectional reflectivity of mirror samples of solar installations are developed. The method of determining the bidirectional reflectance includes the experimental determination of the conically-tapered reflectivity and calculations with certain assumptions. Experimentally, the conicalconical reflectivity was measured in a facility where the radiation source was an arc ball xenon lamp. The technique takes into account the final size of the aperture angles of the source and the receiver and their unevenness within the radiation intensity. A formula was proposed to describe the bi-directional reflectivity. The ratio of the energy flows of the reflected and incident radiation allows to determine the conical-conical reflectivity.

Key words: the deflection angle of rays conically-tapered reflectivity, the radiation source, the flow of energy, a perfect mirror, the ratio of the brightness of the reflection indicatrix of reflection, suntrap, convective and radiative heat transfer.

 

REFERENCES

1. Zigel' F., Khauell D. Teploobmen izlucheniem. M. : Mir, 1975. 934 s.

2. Polyak G. L. Luchistyy teploobmen tel s proizvol'nymi indikatrisami otrazheniya poverkhnostey // V Sb. Konvektivnyy i luchistyy teploobmen. M. : Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR, 1990. S. 118-131.

3. Toporets A. S., Mazurenko M. M. Goniospektrofotometricheskaya ustanovka s vysokim uglovym razresheniem // Optiko-mekhanicheskaya promyshlennost'. 1964. № 17. S. 37-39.

4. Toporets A. S. Optika sherokhovatoy poverkhnosti. L. : Mashinostroenie, 1988. 191 p.

5. Isaev V. A., Filonik A. O., Zvyagel'skaya I. D. Gelioenergetika v razvitii Arabskogo Vostoka. M. : MGIMO-Universitet, 2017. S. 297–311.

6. Strebkov D. S. Perspektivy razvitiya vozobnovlyaemoy energetiki // Trudy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii «Energoobespechenie i energosberezhenie v sel'skom khozyaystve». M. : 2012. S. 35-41.

7. Nefedova L. V. Struktura bazy dannykh po maloy gidroenergetike v ramkakh razrabotki GIS «Vozobnovlyaemye istochniki energii Rossii». // Trudy 8-y Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii. M. : VIESKh, 2012. S. 123-128.

 

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УДК 621.43:662 

L. A. DOLGOVA, Associate Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State University of Architecture and Construction", Russian Federation, Penza

V. V. SALMIN, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State University of Architecture and Construction", Russian Federation, Penza

 

METHOD AND STAND FOR DETERMINING THE RESOURCE OF MOTOR OIL IN THE ENGINE

Abstract. In the course of work motor oil is affected by various factors therefore it loses the operational properties. It is established that in the course of operation of the engine engine oil is exposed to hydrodynamic, thermodynamic and thermochemical influence. On the basis of the carried-out patent and information search shortcomings of the existing ways and means of a research in vitro of the main operational properties of engine oil are revealed and the design of the stand in which the operating conditions of engine oil as close as possible to real are created is offered. As criterion for evaluation of a resource of engine oil serves the generalized indicator considering key indicators of quality of engine oil which are determined by standard techniques. Settlement and theoretical justification of recalculation of quantity of cycles of work of installation on car mileage is executed. The predicted car mileage is defined by technical and operational indicators of work of the car and duration of the modes of test of engine oil in installation. As a result of the conducted research of process of aging of engine oil of the M-10-G2 brand at the laboratory stand have defined his resource corresponding to the car mileage of 14 thousand km. Laboratory installation allows to reproduce processes of change of hydrocarbonic composition of engine oil with reliability of 95%. Calculation of number of cycles of work of laboratory installation and determination of size of car mileage in actual practice gives to operation the chance to predict process of change of operational properties of engine oil and to determine the car mileage at which the value of oil is exhausted and by that to recommend to make timely replacement of engine oil in the engine.

Key words: engine oil, engine, oil resource, frequency of replacement of oil, laboratory installation, work imitation, thermodynamic, hydromechanical and thermochemical influences, car mileage.

 

REFERENCES

1. Pat. 2207556 Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, MPK 51 G 01 N 27/02, G01R 27/26. Sposob opredeleniya kachestva mineral'nykh motornykh masel i prichin, vyzyvayushchikh ego izmeneniya / Babenko V. A., Vasil'eva L. K., Ivanova Z. D., Igolkin B. I., Kartashov Yu. I., Kir'yanov V. I., Rozum V. P., Usikov A. S., Usikov S. V.; zayavitel' i patentoobladatel' Aktsionernoe obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa «Proizvodstvenno-kommercheskiy tsentr «Meridian». № 2002102416/28 ; zayavl. 18.01.2002 ; opubl. 27.06.2003 , Byul. № 18.

2. Pat. 2286566 Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, MPK 51 G 01 N 33/28, G 01 N 33/30. Sposob opredeleniya soderzhaniya okhlazhdayushchey zhidkosti v motornom masle / Nigmatullin R. G., Sholom V. Yu., Khamidullin G. Sh., Savel'eva N. V., Eremeeva Yu. V., Volkova E. B.; patentoobladatel' Obshchestvo s ogranichennoy otvetstvennost'yu «Khozraschetnyy tvorcheskiy tsentr» Ufimskogo aviatsionnogo instituta. № 2005129194/04 ; zayavl. 19.09.2005 ; opubl. 27.10.2006 , Byul. № 30.

3. Pat. 2301414 Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, MPK 51 G 01 N 11/10. Sposob otsenki zagryaznennosti mekhanicheskimi primesyami motornogo masla dvigatelya vnutrennego sgoraniya / Nikonov S. V., Pashchenko V. M., Lunin E. V.; patentoobladatel' FGOU «VPO» Ryazanskaya gosudarstvennaya sel'skokhozyaystvennaya akademiya im. prof. P. A. Kostycheva. № 2005134499/28 ; zayavl. 07.11.2005 ; opubl. 20.06.2007 , Byul. № 17.

4. Pat. 2340893 Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, MPK 51 G01N 33/28, G01N 7/18. Ustroystvo dlya opredeleniya soderzhaniya vody v motornom masle / Kuznetsov V. G., Vedyashkin A. S.; patentoobladatel' Kaliningradskiy pogranichnyy institut FSB Rossii. № 2007126637/04 ; zayavl. 12.07.2007 ; opubl.10.12.2008 , Byul. № 34.

5. Pat. 2399050 Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, MPK 51 G 01 N 33/28, B 01 D 39/18, D 21 H 27/08. Testovaya sreda dlya ekspress-analiza motornykh masel v dvigatelyakh vnutrennego sgoraniya / Khorstmeyer G.; patentoobladatel' Khorstmeyer Gert. № 2007125727/04 ; zayavl. 08.12.2005 ; opubl. 10.09.2010 , Byul. № 25.

6. Pat. 2455629 Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, MPK 51 G 01 N 17/00, G 01 N 33/26. Ustroystvo dlya otsenki kachestva smazochnykh masel / Yanovskiy L. S., Goryachev V. V., Ezhov V. V., Stepanova R. M., Chvykova E. N., Sharanina K. V.; patentoobladatel' Federal'noe gosudarstvennoe unitarnoe predpriyatie «Tsentral'nyy institut aviatsionnogo motorostroeniya imeni P. I. Baranova». № 2011111324/28 ; zayavl. 28.03.2011 ; opubl. 10.07.2012 , Byul. № 19.

7. Pat. 2482466 Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, G 01 N 19/00. Ustanovka dlya otsenki moyushchikh svoystv masel s prisadkami / Kuznetsov A. A., Shishaev S. V., Malykhin V. D., Yakovlev A. V.; patentoobladatel' Federal'noe avtonomnoe uchrezhdenie «25 Gosudarstvennyy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut khimmotologii Ministerstva oborony Rossiyskoy Federatsii». № 2011143066/28 ; zayavl. 26.10.2011 ; opubl. 20.05.2013 , Byul. № 14.

8. Salmin V. V. Entropiynaya teoriya stareniya motornykh masel: monografiya. M. : VINITI, reg. № 1722-V2002, 2002.

9. Dolgova L. A., Salmin V. V. Obespechenie ratsional'nogo resursa motornogo masla v dvigatelyakh // Vestnik Chuvashskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. I. Ya. Yakovleva. 2012. № 2-1. S. 46–56.

 

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УДК 621.431-192 

L. I. KOROL’KOVA, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "South Ural State University (National Research University)", Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "South Ural State agrarian University" Institute of Agroengineering, Russian Federation, Troitsk

N. MASHRABOV, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "South Ural State agrarian University" Institute of Agroengineering, Russian Federation, Troitsk

Y. L. SYUS’KINA, Senior Lecturer

Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "South Ural State University (National Research University)", Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk

 

THE CALCULATION OF PROBABILITY OF FAILURE-FREE OPERATION FOR SYSTEMS WITH INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP INVENTORY

Abstract. An approach is presented to the calculation of the probability of failure-free operation of agricultural machines, taking into account the replacement of the failed elements with spare parts for arbitrary distributions of time to the failure of the initial and replacement elements. Four types of elements are distinguished from the point of view of providing them with spare parts: highly reliable ones, which are not provided with spare parts for a rather long period; elements with an individual stock and the same type of elements with a group stock, working in the same conditions or differing from each other modes of operation. To calculate the total time between failures of the system, first, the time between failures of each type of spare parts (subsystems) are found separately. With an individual stock, integrals of the convolution type are used. For group inventory, it is recommended to use the conditional probability method. The method uses the preparation of an open circuit of subsystems functioning with a group reserve and calculation by formulas using conditional probabilities. The formulas include five types of distribution functions: sum and difference of two random durations; one duration, provided that it is greater than the other; one duration provided that it is less than the other, the minimum of the group of durations. The calculation results are compared with the exact solution for the Markov model.

Key words: arbitrary distribution of time to failure, group inventory, schematization, conditional probabilities.

 

REFERENCES

1. Kashtanov V. A., Medvedev A. I. Teoriya nadezhnosti slozhnykh sistem. 2-e izd., pererab. M. : FIZMATLIT, 2010. 608 s.

2. Viktorova V. S., Stepanyants A. S. Modeli i metody rascheta nadezhnosti tekhnicheskikh sistem. M. : Lenand, 2016. 256 s.

3. Cherkesov G. N. Otsenka nadezhnosti sistem s uchetom ZIP. SPb. : BKhV-Peterburg, 2012. 480 s.

4. Churkin V. V. Otsenka i optimizatsiya komplekta ZIP s pomoshch'yu metoda statisticheskogo modelirovaniya // Nauchno-tekhnicheskie vedomosti SPbGPU. Informatika. Telekommunikatsii. Upravlenie. 2015. № 2-3. S. 79–92.

5. Shebe Kh., Shubinskiy I. B. Predel'naya nadezhnost' strukturnogo rezervirovaniya // Nadezhnost'. 2016. T. 16. № 1. S. 3–13.

6. Barlou R., Proshan F. Matematicheskaya teoriya nadezhnosti: Per. s angl. / Pod red. B.V. Gnedenko. M. : Sovetskoe radio, 1969. 489 s.

7. Korol'kov I. V., Korol'kova L. I. Raschet narabotki do otkaza sistemy s gruppovym zapasom // Problemy mashinostroeniya i nadezhnosti mashin. 2003. № 1. S. 88–95.

8. Gurov S. V. Analiz nadezhnosti tekhnicheskikh sistem s proizvol'nymi zakonami raspredeleniy otkazov i vosstanovleniy // Kachestvo i nadezhnost' izdeliy. M. : Znanie, 1992. S. 3–37.

9. Gopalan M. N., Dinesh U. K. Analysis of an n-unit cold-standby system with general failure and repair time distributions // Int. J. of Quality & Reliability Management. 1995. V 12. № 3. Р. 77–85.

10. Antonov A. V., Plyaskin A. V., Tataev Kh. N. K voprosu rascheta nadezhnosti rezervirovannykh struktur s uchetom stareniya elementov // Nadezhnost'. 2013. № 1. S. 55–67.

11. Zayko Yu. G., Iskandarova L. N., Trakhtomirov A. V. Imitatsionnaya model' dlya rascheta pokazateley nadezhnosti rezervirovannykh radioelektronnykh sistem // Nadezhnost'. 2016. T. 16. № 3. S. 8–17.

12. Korol'kova L. I., Mashrabov N. Raschet raspredeleniya narabotki do otkaza dlya podsistemy s gruppovym rezervom // Mezhdunarodnyy nauchnyy zhurnal. 2017. № 6. S. 36–41.

 

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УДК 631.173.004.12 

A. A. PCHELKIN, Post-graduate student

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K. A. Timiryazev", Russian Federation, Moscow

 

STATISTICS MEASURING AND MONITORING PROCESSES IN THE SPHERE OF REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE OF FARM EQUIPMENT

Abstract. For the successful operation of the enterprise repair companies should always be made decisions adequate to the current situation. To make such decisions, you must have reliable information about the situation (after making sure that the sources of information are correct). Often, the results of measurements or control of process or product parameters are used as information for decision-making. To obtain an opinion on the reliability of such information, an analysis of the measurement or control processes used is carried out. For the correct application of statistical methods it is necessary to know the basic statistical concepts such as variability and stability (controllability) of the process. Recognition and elimination of special causes usually requires local actions and is the responsibility of those who are directly related to the process (operator, master, controller, etc.). To reduce the variability of the process, it is necessary to concentrate on reducing the impact of common causes, which require a more detailed analysis, and their removal actions on the system (process). Experience shows that only 15 % of excessive variability is removable on the ground, the majority (about 85 %) is corrected only by actions on the system itself.

Key words: technique, statistics, repair, quality, process, measurement, control, production, detail, equipment.

 

REFERENCES

1. Bondareva G. I. Sostavlyayushchie kachestva remonta // Sel'skiy mekhanizator. 2016. № 7. S. 2–4.

2. Erokhin M. N. Osobennosti obespecheniya kachestva remonta sel'skokhozyaystvennoy tekhniki na sovremennom etape // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU. 2005. № 1. S. 9–12.

3. Leonov O. A. Teoreticheskie osnovy rascheta dopuskov posadok pri remonte sel'skokhozyaystvennoy tekhniki // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU. 2010. № 2. S. 106–109.

4. Erokhin M. N. Vzaimosvyaz' tochnosti i nadezhnosti soedineniy pri remonte sel'skokhozyaystvennoy tekhniki // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU. 2006. № 2. S. 22–25.

5. Leonov O. A., Selezneva N. I. Tekhniko-ekonomicheskiy analiz sostoyaniya tekhnologicheskogo oborudovaniya na predpriyatiyakh tekhnicheskogo servisa v agropromyshlennom komplekse // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU. 2012. № 5. S. 64–67.

6. Leonov O. A., Shkaruba N. Zh. Upravlenie kachestvom metrologicheskogo obespecheniya predpriyatiy // Sbornik nauchnykh dokladov VIM. 2012. S. 412–420.

7. Bondareva G. I. Vkhodnoy kontrol' i metrologicheskoe obespechenie na predpriyatiyakh tekhnicheskogo servisa // Sel'skiy mekhanizator. 2017. № 4. S. 36–38.

8. Temasova G. N. Organizatsiya sistemy kontrolya zatrat na kachestvo na predpriyatiyakh tekhnicheskogo servisa APK // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU. 2009. № 8-1. S. 56–59.

9. Leonov O. A., Shkaruba N. Zh. Raschet zatrat na kontrol' tekhnologicheskikh protsessov remontnogo proizvodstva // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU. 2004. № 5. S. 75–77.

10. Metrologiya, standartizatsiya i sertifikatsiya / O. A. Leonov, V. V. Kapruzov, N. Zh. Shkaruba, N. E. Kisenkov [i dr.]. M. : KolosS, 2009. 568 s.

11. Leonov O. A., Shkaruba N. Zh. Metody i sredstva izmereniy. M. : MGAU, 2014. 256 s.

12. Leonov O. A., Temasova G. N. Statisticheskie metody kontrolya i upravleniya kachestvom. M., 2014. 140 s.

13. Leonov O. A., Bondareva G. I., Shkaruba N. Zh. Otsenka kachestva izmeritel'nykh protsessov v remontnom proizvodstve // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU. 2013. № 2. S. 36.

14. Bondareva G. I. Postroenie sovremennoy sistemy kachestva na predpriyatiyakh tekhnicheskogo servisa // Sel'skiy mekhanizator. 2017. № 8. S. 34–35.

15. Shkaruba N. Zh., Pchelkin A. A. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie kontroliruemykh parametrov pri remonte mashin s ispol'zovaniem statisticheskikh metodov // Sbornik «Vklad molodykh uchenykh v agrarnuyu nauku»: Materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii / Samarskaya gosudarstvennaya sel'skokhozyaystvennaya akademiya. 2016. S. 323–324.

16. Leonov O. A., Shkaruba N. Zh. Teoriya i praktika otsenki pogreshnostey sredstv izmereniy moshchnosti i raskhoda topliva pri remonte dvigateley vnutrennego sgoraniya // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU. 2004. № 1. S. 95–97.

17. Shkaruba N. Zh. Otsenka skhodimosti i vosproizvodimosti izmeritel'nogo protsessa pri defektatsii diametrov sheek kolenchatogo vala // Vestnik FGOU VPO MGAU. 2015. № 1 (65). S. 42–46.

18. Leonov O. A., Bondareva G. I., Shkaruba N. Zh., Vergazova Yu. G. Kachestvo sel'skokhozyaystvennoy tekhniki i kontrol' pri ee proizvodstve i remonte // Traktory i sel'khozmashiny. 2016. № 3. S. 30–32.

19. Leonov O. A., Bondareva G. I., Shkaruba N. Zh. Vliyanie pogreshnosti sredstv izmereniy na poteri pri remonte sel'khoztekhniki // Mekhanizatsiya i elektrifikatsiya sel'skogo khozyaystva, 2007. № 11. S. 27–29.

20. Shkaruba N. Zh. Vliyanie pogreshnostey izmereniya na rezul'taty razbrakovki pri defektatsii detaley mashin // Traktory i sel'khozmashiny. 2016. № 2. S. 41–43.

21. Leonov O. A., Antonova U. Yu. Vybor universal'nykh sredstv izmereniy dlya kontrolya gil'z tsilindrov dvigatelya pri selektivnoy sborke // Traktory i sel'khozmashiny. 2017. № 6. S. 52–57.

22. Leonov O. A., Kapruzov V. V., Shkaruba N. Zh. Metrologiya, standartizatsiya i sertifikatsiya. M. : OOO «Reart», 2017. 188 s.

23. Leonov O. A., Shkaruba N. Zh., Temasova G. N. Kursovoe proektirovanie po metrologii, standartizatsii i sertifikatsii. M. : MGAU, 2011. 120 s.

 

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УДК 631.171-192

B. N. ORLOV, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor

M. A. KARAPETYAN, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor

A. S. MATVEEV, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K. A. Timiryazev", Russian Federation, Moscow


THE IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF AGRICULTURE ON THE STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY OF AGRI-BUSINESS MACHINES

Abstract. The industrialization of agriculture and its transition to an industrial base have increased human impact on nature. In recent years, due to irrational methods of tillage everywhere observed destruction of arable land. The development of erosion processes on Earth broke established in the process of long-term evolutionary development of the ecological system and disrupted the cycle of nutrients in the biosphere. Soil erosion has worsened the environmental conditions of agriculture. A "chain reaction" began to appear: developing erosion processes increased the alienation of organic substances and humus from the biological cycle, and the decrease in the content of organic substances and humus in the soil lowered its anti-erosion resistance. Factors related to soil properties are variable. In different soil and climatic conditions, the influence of these factors may vary significantly and, accordingly, the wear resistance of the same materials in different parts of the soil under equal conditions will not be the same. The article establishes the types and intensity of wear of working bodies in different soil conditions, conducted selective observations of the wear of typical working bodies. Studies have shown that the treatment of solid soils with stony inclusions there is a significant deformation of the cutting edge, fatigue gouges. All this testifies to the heavy working conditions of the metal when exposed to the soil. The regularities of the wear process in conditions close to real ones are experimentally investigated, and the level of reliability of machines and mechanisms in the industrialization of agriculture is studied.

Key words: agriculture, properties, mode, processes, erosion, destruction, durability, reabsorption, energy, repair, reliability.

 

REFRENCES

1. Orlov B. N., Nurnakhambetov G. Kh. Issledovanie pokazateley nadezhnosti na etapakh stanovleniya tekhniki // VESTNIK Mezhdunarodnoy obshchestvennoy akademii ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti i prirodopol'zovaniya (MOAEBP). 2012. № 11(18).

2. Orlov B. N., Bondareva G. I. Fiziko-mekhanicheskaya model' iznashivaniya rabochikh elementov mashin i oborudovaniya razlichnykh konstruktsiy // Mezhdunarodnyy nauchnyy zhurnal. 2012. № 3.

3. Orlov B. N., Bondareva G. I. Geometricheskiy smysl mikropolyarnykh deformatsiy m prevrashcheniy v sploshnoy srede pri vzaimodeystvii rabochikh elementov s abrazivom // Mezhdunarodnyy tekhniko-ekonomicheskiy zhurnal. 2012. № 3.

4. Orlov B. N. Tekhnicheskiy servis mashin i oborudovaniya prirodoobustroystva // VESTNIK Mezhdunarodnoy obshchestvennoy akademii ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti i prirodopol'zovaniya (MOAEBP). 2014. №17(24).

5. Orlov B. N., Novichenko A. I., Orlov N. B. Metodologiya obosnovaniya ratsional'nogo tekhnologicheskogo protsessa vosstanovleniya rabotosposobnosti mashin i oborudovaniya // Prirodoobustroystvo. 2015. № 4.

 

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ENERGY

 

 

 

УДК 621.31:665

R. A. IMANAYEV, Postgraduate

T. M. NABIYEV, Postgraduate

L. A. RYABISHINA, Associate Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Ufa State Oil Technical University", Russian Federation, Ufa

 

INVESTIGATION OF THE SPECTRUM OF HIGHER HARMONIC COMPONENTS IN AUTONOMOUS POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS OF OIL AND GAS FIELD

Abstract. The article presents the results of the study of the level of higher harmonic components in the Autonomous power supply system of the oil and gas field. For these power supply systems, the issue of electromagnetic compatibility is relevant, since the power of consumers generating higher harmonics is commensurate with the power of the power supply system. The object of the study was the Autonomous system of power supply of the oil and gas field. The harmonic composition of the connection currents at four substations 110/10 and the coefficient of distortion of sinusoidality, as well as active and reactive power and power factor were monitored during the examination of the quality of electricity. According to the analysis and calculation of the higher harmonic components of the current and voltage of the Autonomous oil and gas field, the following measures were recommended to reduce the influence of higher harmonics. The first method of improving the harmonic composition includes measures to reduce the impedance of the network from the source of higher harmonics to the windings of generators. A strong impact on the reduction of higher harmonics, has an increase in the number of operating generators, with the same amount of power produced. When you increase the number of the generators of the content ratio of the 5th harmonic voltage on the buses of 10 kV of power plant is reduced. The total harmonic content of 5, 7 and 11 is also reduced. The next method is the commissioning of the second stage, in which the generators of another type of higher power will be installed, with less internal resistance, which will favorably affect the reduction of the impact of higher harmonics. The third method includes filtration measures of higher harmonics at the output of frequency converters.

Key words: autonomous system, oil and gas field, higher harmonics, electromagnetic compatibility, voltage unbalance factor, harmonic composition, power converters.

 

REFERENCES

1. Kartashev I. I., Tul'skij V. N. Upravlenie kachestvom ehlektroehnergii. M. : Izdatel'skij dom MEHI, 2006. S. 122-134.

2. Harlov N. N. Tekhnicheskij otchet. Ispytanie, diagnostika i razrabotka meropriyatij po normalizacii parametrov ehlektroseti Bovanenkovskogo NGKM. Tomsk, 2014. S. 23.

3. GOST 32144-2013 Normy kachestva ehlektricheskoj ehnergii v sistemah ehlektrosnabzheniya obshchego naznacheniya. M. : Izdatel'stvo standartov, 2013. S.7.

4. Zhelezko Yu. S. Poteri ehlektroehnergii. Reaktivnaya moshchnost'. Kachestvo ehlektroehnergii. Rukovodstvo dlya prakticheskih raschetov. M. : EHNAS, 2009.

5. Zhezhelenko  I. V.  Vysshie garmoniki v sistemah ehlektrosnabzheniya prompredpriyatij. 4-e izd. M. : Ehnergoatomizdat, 2000. S. 223-331.

6. Kudryashev G. S., Seleznyov A. S., Fedosov D. S. Vyyavlenie istochnikov iskazheniya formy krivoj napryazheniya v ehlektroehnergeticheskih sistemah // Mashinostroenie: setevoj ehlektronnyj nauchnyj zhurnal. 2014. № 3. T.2. S. 59-65 [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.industengiring.ru/issues.pdf (data obrashcheniya 29.01.2018).

7. Fedosov D. S., Vandam Zh. K., Voroncov D. V. Issledovanie rezonansnyh yavlenij na vysshih garmonikah v skheme vneshnego ehlektrosnabzheniya nelinejnoj nagruzki //  Vestnik IGTU. 2016. S. 145–154.

8. Zyryanov V. M., Mitrofanov N. A., Sokolovskij Yu. B. Analiz garmonicheskogo sostava toka i napryazheniya na shinah 0,4 kV KTPN i primenenie ustrojstv ogranicheniya vysshih garmonik // Vestnik IGTU. 2016. S. 61–68.

9. Shklyarskij Ya. Eh., Skam'in A. N. Problemy vysshih garmonik v setyah promyshlennyh predpriyatij. M. : Ehlektrotekhnika, 2015. S. 69-71.

10. Elinov D. A., Biryukova O. V., Chernecov M. V. Vliyanie vysshih garmonik pri izmeneniyah chastoty v ehlektricheskih setyah // Modeli, sistemy, seti v ehkonomike, tekhnike, prirode i obshchestve. 2015. S. 158-164.

 

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УДК 631.371:621.31 

M. N. SUVOROV,  Postgraduate

T. B. LESHCHINSKAYA, Advanced Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy named after A. K. Timiryazev", Russian Federation, Moscow

 

STRATEGIES FOR THE USE OF APSS AND OVERCOMING THE UNCERTAINTY OF INITIAL INFORMATION BY EXPERT ASSESSMENTS

Abstract. In the article conclusions of the use of gas turbine, gas piston plants and microturbines, based on existing schemes of electricity supply to agricultural consumers are drawn. The range of the remoteness of the agricultural consumer from the feeding center of the electric network company is determined, for which it is expediently to consider the use    of an autonomous source of electricity supply on natural gas. Eight strategies of the use of autonomous power sources (gas piston units, microturbines) for consumer power supply in a remote gasified settlement are presented. The question of uncertainty of initial information about the consumer load (can both increase and decrease), which complicates the choice of a better strategy, is indicated. The most probable method for uncovering uncertainty is a method based on the theory of fuzzy sets, using expert estimates of the states of the mediumload. If we consider the set of probable values of the maximum loads for an autonomous power supply as a fuzzy set of loads S, then the degree of belonging of a particular load    value to the set S can be estimated by the membership function taking different values. The specific values of depend on subjective expert judgment. The collection and analysis of expert opinions (assessments) is the research task of the decision-maker. The results of processing a collective expert survey among employees of one of the Moscow electric network companies, and a methodology for their further use for choosing of a power supply scheme with an autonomous power source in a remote gasified settlement are presented in the article.

Key words: autonomous power supply source, strategy, experts, fuzzy set theory, membership function.

 

REFERENCES

1. Elektroenergetika Rossii 2030: Tselevoe videnie / pod red. B. F. Vaynzikhera. M. : Al'pina Biznes Buks, 2008. 352 s.

2. Vlasenko E. A., Suleymanov R. A., Khamula A. A.  Avtonomnaya elektroenergetika sel'skogo khozyaystva: sostoyanie i perspektivy // Polzunovskiy vestnik. 2011. № 2/1. S. 9–13.

3. Gorodov R. V., Gubin V. E., Matveev A. S.  Netraditsionnye i vozobnovlyaemye istochniki energii. Tomsk : Izd-vo Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2009. 294 s.

4. Platonov A. S., Pikhletskiy V. V.  Otsenka effektivnosti raboty mini-TETs na baze gazoporshnevykh ustanovok // Seriya Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki. 2013. № 11-12. Rezhim dostupa. URL: http://www.nauteh-journal.ru (data obrashcheniya 03.02.2018).

5. Leshchinskaya T. B.  Optimizatsiya struktur i parametrov sistem elektrosnabzheniya M. : NIU MEI, 2013. 90 s.

6. Konysheva L. K., Nazarov D. M.  Osnovy teorii nechetkikh mnozhestv : Uchebnoe posobie. SPb. : Piter, 2011. 192 s.

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

УДК 631.371:621.31 

M. N. SUVOROV,  Postgraduate

T. B. LESHCHINSKAYA, Advanced Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy named after A. K. Timiryazev", Russian Federation, Moscow

 

STRATEGIES FOR THE USE OF APSS AND OVERCOMING THE UNCERTAINTY OF INITIAL INFORMATION BY EXPERT ASSESSMENTS

Abstract. In the article conclusions of the use of gas turbine, gas piston plants and microturbines, based on existing schemes of electricity supply to agricultural consumers are drawn. The range of the remoteness of the agricultural consumer from the feeding center of the electric network company is determined, for which it is expediently to consider the use    of an autonomous source of electricity supply on natural gas. Eight strategies of the use of autonomous power sources (gas piston units, microturbines) for consumer power supply in a remote gasified settlement are presented. The question of uncertainty of initial information about the consumer load (can both increase and decrease), which complicates the choice of a better strategy, is indicated. The most probable method for uncovering uncertainty is a method based on the theory of fuzzy sets, using expert estimates of the states of the mediumload. If we consider the set of probable values of the maximum loads for an autonomous power supply as a fuzzy set of loads S, then the degree of belonging of a particular load    value to the set S can be estimated by the membership function taking different values. The specific values of depend on subjective expert judgment. The collection and analysis of expert opinions (assessments) is the research task of the decision-maker. The results of processing a collective expert survey among employees of one of the Moscow electric network companies, and a methodology for their further use for choosing of a power supply scheme with an autonomous power source in a remote gasified settlement are presented in the article.

Key words: autonomous power supply source, strategy, experts, fuzzy set theory, membership function.

 

REFERENCES

1. Elektroenergetika Rossii 2030: Tselevoe videnie / pod red. B. F. Vaynzikhera. M. : Al'pina Biznes Buks, 2008. 352 s.

2. Vlasenko E. A., Suleymanov R. A., Khamula A. A.  Avtonomnaya elektroenergetika sel'skogo khozyaystva: sostoyanie i perspektivy // Polzunovskiy vestnik. 2011. № 2/1. S. 9–13.

3. Gorodov R. V., Gubin V. E., Matveev A. S.  Netraditsionnye i vozobnovlyaemye istochniki energii. Tomsk : Izd-vo Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2009. 294 s.

4. Platonov A. S., Pikhletskiy V. V.  Otsenka effektivnosti raboty mini-TETs na baze gazoporshnevykh ustanovok // Seriya Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki. 2013. № 11-12. Rezhim dostupa. URL: http://www.nauteh-journal.ru (data obrashcheniya 03.02.2018).

5. Leshchinskaya T. B.  Optimizatsiya struktur i parametrov sistem elektrosnabzheniya M. : NIU MEI, 2013. 90 s.

6. Konysheva L. K., Nazarov D. M.  Osnovy teorii nechetkikh mnozhestv : Uchebnoe posobie. SPb. : Piter, 2011. 192 s.

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

УДК 631.371:621.31 

M. N. SUVOROV,  Postgraduate

T. B. LESHCHINSKAYA, Advanced Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy named after A. K. Timiryazev", Russian Federation, Moscow

 

STRATEGIES FOR THE USE OF APSS AND OVERCOMING THE UNCERTAINTY OF INITIAL INFORMATION BY EXPERT ASSESSMENTS

Abstract. In the article conclusions of the use of gas turbine, gas piston plants and microturbines, based on existing schemes of electricity supply to agricultural consumers are drawn. The range of the remoteness of the agricultural consumer from the feeding center of the electric network company is determined, for which it is expediently to consider the use    of an autonomous source of electricity supply on natural gas. Eight strategies of the use of autonomous power sources (gas piston units, microturbines) for consumer power supply in a remote gasified settlement are presented. The question of uncertainty of initial information about the consumer load (can both increase and decrease), which complicates the choice of a better strategy, is indicated. The most probable method for uncovering uncertainty is a method based on the theory of fuzzy sets, using expert estimates of the states of the mediumload. If we consider the set of probable values of the maximum loads for an autonomous power supply as a fuzzy set of loads S, then the degree of belonging of a particular load    value to the set S can be estimated by the membership function taking different values. The specific values of depend on subjective expert judgment. The collection and analysis of expert opinions (assessments) is the research task of the decision-maker. The results of processing a collective expert survey among employees of one of the Moscow electric network companies, and a methodology for their further use for choosing of a power supply scheme with an autonomous power source in a remote gasified settlement are presented in the article.

Key words: autonomous power supply source, strategy, experts, fuzzy set theory, membership function.

 

REFERENCES

1. Elektroenergetika Rossii 2030: Tselevoe videnie / pod red. B. F. Vaynzikhera. M. : Al'pina Biznes Buks, 2008. 352 s.

2. Vlasenko E. A., Suleymanov R. A., Khamula A. A.  Avtonomnaya elektroenergetika sel'skogo khozyaystva: sostoyanie i perspektivy // Polzunovskiy vestnik. 2011. № 2/1. S. 9–13.

3. Gorodov R. V., Gubin V. E., Matveev A. S.  Netraditsionnye i vozobnovlyaemye istochniki energii. Tomsk : Izd-vo Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2009. 294 s.

4. Platonov A. S., Pikhletskiy V. V.  Otsenka effektivnosti raboty mini-TETs na baze gazoporshnevykh ustanovok // Seriya Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki. 2013. № 11-12. Rezhim dostupa. URL: http://www.nauteh-journal.ru (data obrashcheniya 03.02.2018).

5. Leshchinskaya T. B.  Optimizatsiya struktur i parametrov sistem elektrosnabzheniya M. : NIU MEI, 2013. 90 s.

6. Konysheva L. K., Nazarov D. M.  Osnovy teorii nechetkikh mnozhestv : Uchebnoe posobie. SPb. : Piter, 2011. 192 s.

 

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УДК 621.31

I. A. MURATAEV, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

G. A. MURATAEVA, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

D. A. IVANOV, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor

Department of Industrial electronics and light engineering, Kazan State Power Engineering University


METHOD OF DIAGNOSTICS OF THE TRANSFORMER EQUIPMENT IN THE IDLE MODE WITH THE USE OF COMPUTERS

Abstract. The method of diagnostics of power transformers on parameters of losses on hysteresis and eddy currents is offered. An analytical expression that describes the dependence of the total loss of active power in steel at different stresses is presented. The method of artificial magnetization of the magnetic circuit to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis is considered. Magnetization with a constant current equal to the idle current of the transformer, it is possible to transfer the core to the saturation mode, i.e. the mode of asymmetric magnetization. The procedure  for  measuring  the  volt-watt characteristics of the transformer at different magnetizing currents of the magnetic circuit by a constant current from an external source is described. Practical measurements on the transformer  with simulation of the artificial defect of damage to the inter-sheet insulation of the magnetic core by removing the lacquer layer of the steel sheets of the magnetic core were carried out. The dependences of changes in diagnostic parameters at different magnetization currents for the normal and defective state of the transformer are presented. It is found that damage to the inter-sheet insulation leads to an increase in losses on eddy currents, which displace the magnetic flux into the intact part of the magnetic circuit and causes a decrease in losses on hysteresis. With the increase in the DC magnetization of the transformer, a decrease in losses on eddy currents is observed, but the redistribution of the magnetic field in the section of the magnetic circuit causes an increase in the component of losses on the hysteresis. The software for automation of the procedure of volt-watt characteristics measurement and determination of diagnostic parameters is developed. The functional capabilities of the software are described.

Key words: transformer electrical equipment, diagnostics, no-load losses, volt-wad characteristics, section of magnetic core, magnetization.

 

REFRENCES

1. Alekseev B. A. Kontrol' sostoyaniya (diagnostika) krupnyh silovyh transformatorov. M. : NC EHNAS, 2002. S. 97-98.

2. Gervic V. N. Metodika diagnostiki usiliya pressovki obmotok transformatora / M. N. Gervic, V. N. Osotov, L. S. Petrishchev [i dr. ] // Ehlektricheskie stancii. 1997. № 5. S. 58-60.

3. Lachman M. F. Diagnostika transformatora posredstvom analiza toka namagnichivaniya // IEEE Trans. on Power deliv. 1994. V. 9. № 3. S. 1466–1475.

4. Ashryatov A. K. Izmerenie poter' holostogo hoda silovyh transformatorov // Ehlektricheskie stancii. 1948. № 5. S. 34-36.

5. Pat. 2374656 Rossijskaya Federaciya, MPK G 01 R 32/02. Sposob formirovaniya diagnosticheskogo parametra pri ispytaniyah ehlektromagnitnyh preobrazovatelej ehnergii /  Kozlov V. K., Murataev I. A., Murataeva G. A. ; zayavitel' i patentoobladatel' Kozlov V. K., Murataev I. A., Murataeva G. A. № 2008105389/09 ; opubl. 27.11.2009, Byul. № 33.

6. Pat. 2354982 Rossijskaya Federaciya, MPK G 01 R 31/02/ Sposob diagnostiki magnitnoj sistemy transformatora / Murataev I. A., Murataeva G. A. ; zayavitel' i patentoobladatel' Murataev I. A., Murataeva G. A. № 2007128240/28 ; opubl. 10.05.2009, Byul. № 13.

7. Starodubcev Yu. N. Magnitnye poteri na vihrevye toki pri postoyannom podmagnichivanii // Ehlektrichestvo. 1979. № 9. S. 75-76.

8. Podgornyj Eh. V., Hlebnikov S. D. Modelirovanie i raschet perekhodnyh rezhimov v cepyah relejnoj zashchity /  Pod red. A. D. Drozdova. M. : Ehnergiya, 1974. 206 s.

9. Yanase S., Okazaki Y., Asano T. AC magnetic properties of electrical steel core under DC biased magnetization // J. Mag. Mater. 2000. V. 215-216. S. 156-158.

10. Rukovodstvo pol'zovatelya [Ehlektronnyj   resurs]. Rezhim   dostupa: http://www.lcard.ru/download/e-502_user_guide.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 14.05.2018).

11. Prihod'ko V. M., Kravchenko V. I., Prihod'ko A. M. Perenosnyj universal'nyj tiristornyj preobrazovatel' s perestraivaemoj strukturoj //  Promyshlennaya ehnergetika. 1999. № 4. S. 30-35.

 

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SAFETY OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES

 

 

 

УДК 614:629.33.082.3

A. V. FOMIN, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Professor

F. F. SHAHMANOV, Adjunct

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "Saint-Petersburg University of State Fire Service of the Russian Federation Ministry for Civil Defense Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters", Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg

 

CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF APPLICATION OF RISK-ORIENTED APPROACH IN IMPLEMENTATION OF SURVEILLANCE FOR COMPLIANCE WITH FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AT AUTOMOBILE GAS FILLING STATIONS

Abstract. Risk-oriented approach in the implementation of federal state fire supervision is to determine the frequency of inspections of protection objects, depending on the assigned risk category. Studies of the activities of the federal state fire supervision revealed that the existing risk-oriented approach to gasoline filling stations does not meet the required quality values of the categorization principles, since the criteria for determining the risk category do not take into account the likelihood and severity of potential negative consequences of possible non-compliance with mandatory fire safety requirements security. Unconventional categorization affects the frequency of checks. The consequence of frequent inspections is an increase in the costs of legal entities, individual entrepreneurs – owners of gas stations and supervisory authorities, and rare inspections or their absence increase the explosive danger of the gas station. As a solution to the problem, a conceptual model is proposed, the essence of which is to clarify the periodicity of routine inspections of the gas station based on the results of the estimated assessment of collective fire risk. The resulting system of the estimated risk assessment of the gas station will become a functional subsystem of the risk-oriented approach to the implementation of GPN at the gas station. The calculation of risk will be based on parameters that take into account the probability and severity of the potential negative consequences of possible non-compliance with mandatory fire safety requirements. Objective categorization will reduce the costs of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs – owners of gas stations and supervisory authorities, as well as increase the safety of gas stations.

Key words: risk-oriented approach, automobile gas stations.

 

REFERENCES

1. Federal'nyy zakon RF ot 26 dekabrya 2008 g. № 294-FZ «O zashchite prav yuridicheskikh lits i individual'nykh predprinimateley pri osushchestvlenii gosudarstvennogo kontrolya (nadzora) i munitsipal'nogo kontrolya» [Elektronnyy resurs]. Access mode: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_83079/ (data obrashcheniya 01.06.2018).

2. Voronov S. P., Matyushin A. V., Shlepnev M. M. Primenenie risk-orientirovannogo podkhoda v deyatel'nosti organov gosudarstvennogo pozharnogo nadzora // Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta Gosudarstvennoy protivopozharnoy sluzhby MChS Rossii. 2016. № 1. S. 130–140.

3. Fomin A. V. Shakhmanov F. F. Problemy primeneniya risk-orientirovannogo podkhoda k planirovaniyu meropriyatiy po kontrolyu v oblasti pozharnoy bezopasnosti na AGZS // Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta Gosudarstvennoy protivopozharnoy sluzhby MChS Rossii. 2016. № 3. S. 33–39.

4. Sayt Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Perechen' porucheniy po itogam soveshchaniya po voprosu rasshireniya ispol'zovaniya gaza v kachestve motornogo topliva ot 2 maya 2018 goda [Elektronnyy resurs]. Access mode: http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/assignments/orders/57402 (data obrashcheniya 03.05.2018).

5. Fomin A. V., Shakhmanov F. F. Analiz statistiki pozharov na AGZS v Rossii // Problemy upravleniya riskami v tekhnosfere. 2016. № 4(40). S. 87–91.

6. O kontseptsii osnovnykh napravleniy sovershenstvovaniya deyatel'nosti nadzornykh organov MChS Rossii, utv. Resheniem kollegii MChS Rossii ot 18.02.2015 goda.

 

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УДК 331.45:629.33.082.3

F. F. SHAHMANOV, Adjunct

A. V. FOMIN, Ph.D. of Engineering Sciences, Professor

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "Saint-Petersburg University of State Fire Service of the Russian Federation Ministry for Civil Defense Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters", Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg

 
THE METHOD OF CATEGORIZATION OF VEHICLE GAS FILLING STATIONS TO THE LEVEL OF RISK

Abstract. The method of categorization of automobile gas stations, based on the calculated assessment of the collective fire risk. The method improves the existing risk-oriented method of state fire supervision, takes into account the probability and severity of negative consequences from possible non-compliance with mandatory fire safety requirements. The article States that fire safety can be presented in the context of the overall structure of the accompanying process of development of the surrounding complex. In the work it is planned to determine the possibility of strategic development of the process of formation of infrastructure for the provision of vehicles with fuel. The authors define the novelty of the study that the device of gas stations should be based on compliance not only with the established standards that determine the possibility of construction and maintenance of the gas station, but also the standards of a comfortable location of the filling station in the local architectural landscape. In particular, the aspects of the fact that the infrastructure for the provision of vehicles with fuel can be expressed both quantitatively and qualitatively are revealed. The issues of risk-based approach are considered separately. The purpose of the risk-based approach is the optimal use of resources and improving the performance of the state fire supervision, reducing costs of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs. The practical direction of the work is the question of uniform distribution of gas stations in the city. The level of risk should be considered as a complex characteristic at the level of legislative consideration of the issue. The authors believe that this problem, coupled with the greening of transport can expand the use of gas fuel.

Key words: risk-oriented approach, automobile gas stations, calculation of security, structure, formation.

 

REFRENCES

1. Gafarova E. A., Shayakhmetov A. M., Arslanov I. R., Mukhametova M. Yu. Obespechenie bezopasnosti na avtozapravochnykh stantsiyakh // Prioritetnye napravleniya issledovaniy v ramkakh estestvennykh i tekhnicheskikh nauk v XXI veke: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov po materialam Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. / Pod obshchey redaktsiey E. P. Tkachevoy. 2018. S. 160–163.

2. Federal'nyy zakon RF ot 26 dekabrya 2008 goda № 294-FZ «O zashchite prav yuridicheskikh lits i individual'nykh predprinimateley pri osushchestvlenii gosudarstvennogo kontrolya (nadzora) i munitsipal'nogo kontrolya» // Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 29.12.2008. № 52 (ch. 1). St. 6249.

3. Erokhina A. A., Troegubova E. V., Borshchev V. Ya. Reshenie problem tekhnogennoy bezopasnosti pri proektirovanii protivopozharnoy zashchity avtozapravochnoy stantsii // Vzglyad molodykh na problemy regional'noy ekonomiki 2017 goda: Materialy Vserossiyskogo otkrytogo konkursa studentov vuzov i molodykh issledovateley. Tambov, 2017. S. 345–349.

4. Fomin A. V., Shakhmanov F. F. Problemy primeneniya risk-orientirovannogo podkhoda k planirovaniyu meropriyatiy po kontrolyu v oblasti pozharnoy bezopasnosti na AGZS // Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta Gosudarstvennoy protivopozharnoy sluzhby MChS Rossii. 2016. № 3. S. 33–39.

5. Fomin A. V., Shakhmanov F. F. Analiz statistiki pozharov na AGZS v Rossii // Problemy upravleniya riskami v tekhnosfere. 2016. № 4(40). S. 87–91.

6. Marinin S. Yu., Kondratenko I. V. Povyshenie urovnya bezopasnosti AZS na osnove analiza riska // Nauchnye trudy Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2017. № 7 (365). S. 456–462.

7. Kluban' V. S., Suslina A. S. Pozharnaya bezopasnost' tekhnologicheskikh protsessov avtozapravochnykh stantsiy // Ezhegodnaya mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-tekhnicheskaya konferentsiya «Sistemy bezopasnosti». 2017. № 26. S. 197–200.

8. Melekhina O. V., Voroshilova Yu. B. Osobennosti kontrol'no-nadzornoy deyatel'nosti pozharnoy bezopasnosti na AZS // Nauchnye trudy Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2017. № 7 (365). S. 479–486.

 

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